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20. Who Really Rules the Nations?

Leadership, Integrity and Nation building.

– by David Mamush Jangjuol

I am really excited about God’s mission in relation to His sovereignty and human salvation. One of the great doctrines of the Bible is the sovereignty of God. It is evident throughout scripture. God has absolute authority and power over His creation. He can do anything He desires to do. Kane points out that “God is creator and sustainer of all things; He is absolutely supreme and orders all things according to His liking”.[1] All creation is subject to His plan and purpose. Revelation chapters four and five provide a picture of the ultimate worth of God as well as the ultimate purpose of creation. The apostle John reveals the purpose for creation is to honour and magnify the Creator. Man was made in the likeness and image of God, Genesis 1:26. Being made in the likeness of God means humankind shares similar characteristics or attributes with God, such as love and holiness. The nature of God explains His mission to bring all things into harmony. He desires love, peace and unity in His Kingdom, just as we do in our world. May our leadership and nation-building fit well alongside God’s plan.

God’s nature also explains why He determines to save mankind instead of allowing the tragedy of sin to run its course to eternal destruction for all people. God is the only eternal Being in existence, with His nature revealed in scripture as being holy, loving, just, and the loving grace of God is immediately recognised when He is seen creating all things. His holiness, love and justice are also observed in the redemption and restoration of fallen creation. Hence, the mission of God had its origin in God’s efforts to provide humankind with eternal life in His Kingdom. His sovereignty is seen in three of His divine activities:

  • Creation, Revelation 4:11

  • Redemption, Ephesians 1:5-9

  • Judgement, Revelation 15:3-4 and Romans 9:18-23.

Everything God does He does according to His own plan and purpose, on His own initiative, by His own power, for His own glory. No human leader should work for his own glory. Regrettably, too many do. Only God Almighty can do so because He alone is worthy of all the praise and the glory creation can offer Him.

This chapter discusses the concept of God’s mission in relation to His sovereignty and salvation. And we will seek to discover how our leadership of nation or church can dovetail into it positively. The thesis is that for humanity’s reign on the earth God has purposely extended His mission and demonstrated His love to save man, thus restoring mankind to his proper and original position in God’s Kingdom. Ultimately, the mission of God and His own sovereignty finds its fulfillment in man’s worship and service to God in His Kingdom. Do you lead by worship of and service to Almighty God?

God is the Supreme Ruler over this universe He created. His plan affects every detail of creation. This plan is eternal and unique. He has wisely chosen a plan in which all details will be seen to finally work together to bring about the greatest good for His personal glorification. Since God is the absolute truth, goodness and love, His plan reflects His own being and nature. Nevertheless, God carried out His all-inclusive plan by a variety of means. His vivid mission from both Old and New Testaments is unquestionable. Charles Van Engen says that “God’s mission works primarily through the people of God intentionally crossing barriers from church to non-church, from faith to non-faith, to proclaim by word of mouth and by every deed the coming of the Kingdom of God in Jesus Christ. Through the church’s participation in God’s mission of reconciling people to God, to themselves, to all other people in the world, and by gathering those who will into the Christian church through repentance and faith in Jesus Christ, by the working of the Holy Spirit, it is hoped to transform the world as a sign of coming of the Kingdom in Jesus Christ”.[2] Reconciliation and harmony among all the people we are responsible for are excellent ways to be working with God, rather than against Him.

God called Abram to pursue His mission,

Genesis 12:1-8

“The Lord had said to Abram, ‘Go from your country, your people and your father’s household to land I will show you’”, Genesis 12:1-3. Abram’s election (selection) and God’s covenant with him represent the first expression of God’s redemptive concern for all nations. As a result, Abram should be regarded as “the pioneer in mission”, the spiritual forefather of the people of God scattered throughout all races of humankind.[3] Abram’s call is the beginning of a partnership between God and humanity in mission, as He reveals His saving grace through His own acts. Peters states that “God is not localised in His interests and activities; He is God of nations”.[4] God’s plan for man is to live in peace, to love another and to pursue His mission to reach the entire world for the gospel of Christ.

We do well to remember it is only what God does through us that will count for anything in the end. All other results from our national or church leadership will be burned as wood, hay and stubble, 1 Corinthians 3:12-15.

  1. Abram was chosen by God for a specific purpose

It was God’s choice to elect Abram with a view to eventually making a covenant with him (Abraham) to become “a father of many nations”, Genesis 17:5-6. This dual act, election and covenant, can be comprehended only in terms of God’s election love and covenant love.[5] Abram was chosen sovereignly by God for the legal purpose of exemplifying and proclaiming the mission of God to the Gentiles. Genesis 12 begins with the living God, later known as “the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob”, Exodus 3:6,15-16, etc., acting in sovereign freedom and calling Abram with Sarai his wife to leave Ur of the Chaldeans, Acts 7:2-4. God called in grace and promised His blessings to Abraham and all of his people.

  1. Abraham’s blessings

Genesis 12:1-3 reveals how God would bless Abraham in a three-fold manner:

  • Abraham would father a great nation

  • he would be personally blessed

  • he would possess a great name.

The purpose of this blessing was that Abraham would become a blessing to the Gentiles. This text serves as the primary mission text for the remainder of biblical revelation. The salvation of the nations was God’s ultimate motivation in making Abraham’s name great and being the God of Abraham’s innumerable progeny. This universal purpose totally dominates the covenant. God stresses in various ways His promise of hope for the nations of the world.[6]“Scripture foresaw that God would justify the Gentiles by faith and announced the gospel in advance to Abraham: ‘all nations will be blessed through you’”, Galatians 3:8. What a privilege to be used by God to bring God’s blessing to a multitude of people, a privilege all of us who lead nation, community or church should pray to God for.

  1. Physical descendants of Abraham

Abraham and his physical descendants were not singled out exclusively to receive eternal life. God began to show how He would elevate one group of people to carry out His plan of redemption and restoration, which would include many others. Although the focus of Genesis 12-50 is primarily on Abraham and only secondarily on Joseph, (the descendant who brought deliverance from famine and corresponding social distress to Egypt, the greatest nation of the ancient world), we see anticipatory fulfillment of the promise of Abraham’s seed blessing the nations.[7] Abraham was chosen for the specific purpose of furthering God’s initiative to reclaim that which had been lost so soon after the creation.

God’s sovereignty and mission to the people of Israel

The mission of God involves the encounter between the people of God and the rest of the nations, as it unfolds through human history. The Exodus is a prime example of God’s mission working through Israel among the nations. In the case of Egypt, God is working amid the principal political power of the region. Repeatedly God, speaking though Moses, explains His intention: that Pharaoh in Egypt and the surrounding nations “will know that I am the Lord”, Exodus 7:5, 17; 9:14-16. In this passage, God delivered the nation of Israel from Egyptian captivity, with His specific purpose that they could serve and worship God in their own territory. It was God’s will that all the people on earth know Him through Israel and for all earth to be “filled with the glory of the Lord”, Numbers 14:21, Psalm 72:19; Habakkuk 2:14. Here, the sovereignty of God is based on three outstanding attributes, which in their fullness belong to only to God:

  • His almighty power, Isaiah 40:12-31

  • His perfect wisdom, Romans 11:33-36

  • His intrinsic goodness, Psalm 145:17.

All three of these great attributes are essential to the concept of sovereignty.

  1. God delivered the nation of Israel

To enjoy the benefits of their majestic calling, Israel was required to obey the Lord. Through their obedience God’s plan to fill the earth with His glory would be accomplished. The key to their obedience was their faith. They were to believe God, trusting in His ability to give them victory while providing for their needs. Further, they were to live according to God’s standards, in that respect being separated from the Gentiles. Surely this is a reminder to today’s leaders? We must honour and obey the Lord in all we do publicly and privately.

  1. The sovereignty of God upon Moses

The Hebrews began to cry to God for deliverance. God graciously raised up Moses to be their liberator. After a period of ever-heightening confrontation with Pharaoh, God delivered Israel from slavery in Egypt. I take the record of this historical sequence at face value. In this case, God worked miraculously to care for the people of Israel and delivered them from the hands of the Egyptians. God passed on His mission to deal with the people of Israel as His chosen people and continues working up to the present day through Jesus Christ and the people of the Christian Church who respect and cooperate with His sovereignty.

In our leadership roles today, political or pastoral, we must take great care to serve with the sovereign God. If His hand is not upon us we will find ourselves fighting against God – and we will certainly lose that struggle in the end.

  1. The role of worship

God’s missionary purpose for the nation of Israel is made very evident through the Old Testament. They were to serve God by becoming a “light for the Gentiles, that my salvation may reach the ends of the earth”, Isaiah 49:6. All nations will worship and praise the Almighty. The Psalmist proclaimed, “so that your ways may be known on earth, your salvation among all nations”, Psalm 67:2. God’s plan was that when the nations saw the blessing of God on Israel, the people would come to believe in the God of Israel and be saved. The sending of Jonah to Nineveh makes known the will of God for Israel’s evangelisation of other nations, Jonah 1:1-2; 3:1-10. When Solomon’s temple was built, it was not exclusive to Israel. Rather, it was to be a house of prayer for the nations, 1 Kings 8:41-43. Malachi envisions the Gentiles and Israel living together in peace. The whole earth was to be engaged in the worship of the God of Israel, Malachi 1:11. The message of the Old Testament is a longing for the redemption and restoration of the entire earth through God’s chosen people. It is certainly an honour to be called to lead under Almighty God. But remember, He is always ‘the boss’!

The Lord’s chosen servant to His people and a light for Gentiles Isaiah 42:1-11

God’s plan for all people in the scripture should be encouraged more in mission today. Isaiah’s declaration of the worldwide mission is central among the prophets. The message of this prophet and the others was unfinishable; God the Eternal One is the God of all nations. Everyone will be judged with righteousness and justice. The need for salvation and the call for repentance with the offer of forgiveness are universal. The Messiah must suffer for all and, after His resurrection, this message must be proclaimed in the whole earth, starting in Jerusalem to all the ends of the world. Christian mission is part of God’s sovereign activity in the realm of redemption.

Kane said, “From first to last the Christian mission is God’s mission, not man’s. It originates from the heart of God. It is based on the love of God. It is determined by the will of God. Its mandate was enunciated by the Son of God. Its rationale is explained in the Word of God. For ultimate success, it is dependent on the power of God”.[8]

At first sight it looks as if Isaiah was a volunteer, for he said, “Here am I, send me”, Isaiah 6:8. A closer look at the beginning of the verse reveals that he was in fact simply responding to God’s call, “whom shall I send, and who will go for us?”. Jesus made it very plain: “You did not choose me, but I chose you and appointed you that you might go and bear fruit – fruit that will last”, John 15:16. If you know you are serving where God has placed you, work humbly with Him to serve all people in His creation.

God universality in His dealings John 4:13-26

In the Gospel of John, Jesus is described as the bearer of the Spirit and as the One in whose name the Father will send the Spirit, John 3:34-35; 14:26; 15:26. This has tremendous implications when we seek to understand the universalisation of the gospel of the Kingdom of God on the day of Pentecost. One recalls Jesus’ pre-Pentecost words to the Samaritan woman at the well. She wanted to know where to worship God, whether in Jerusalem or on Mount Gerizim, John 4:20. In response, Jesus affirmed what Pentecost provided, “A time is coming when you will worship the Father neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem … when the true worshippers will worship the Father in Spirit and truth, for they are the kind of worshippers the Father seeks. God is Spirit, and His worshippers must worship in Spirit and in truth”, John 4:21-24. How did the woman understand these words? Was Jesus only saying a new day was coming when geography would be of no significance? Jesus’ use of the word ‘Spirit’ spoke to her. She was uninformed. Jesus was more than the Messiah and His representation of the vital nature of God. He Himself was the God of creation and re-creation. She knew that the Messiah at His coming would bring newness of life to His disobedient peoples. Furthermore now, those who worship Him must worship Him in Spirit and in truth. This would mean their submission to God’s active presence in their own hearts in a way that is consistent with God’s covenant. Glasser wrote, “Worship must come from the heart. All formal worship, if devoid of heart involvement, is never acceptable”.[9] We serve in our leadership by worshipping God. We love Him with 100% of everything. Others ought to be able to see Jesus in us and in what we do.

The mission of God is cross cultural and universal in nature, transcending all the racial and geographical barriers. It destroys, breaking the barrier walls of hostility, for example, the cultural differences between Jews and Samaritans, John 4. During the common task of getting drinking water this woman sees God’s mission accomplished. She perceives Jesus as the true Prophet and receives her salvation. She went out with joy, witnessing to the whole village about what Jesus had told her. Everybody was amazed with the wonderful news. This is the mission of God. The ministry of Jesus was very simple to the Samaritan woman, but the results were so powerful. His message changed her entire life. As I have seen, God can work through us in different ways as we witness to our relatives as well as to the outsiders. To carry out God’s message does not need academic qualification. It is for every believer, in whatever role, to surrender our hearts to the Lord for the sake of His Kingdom, to take up our crosses and to go out among unreached people groups, ministering to them as commanded by our Lord Jesus, “go and make disciples of all nations”, Matthew 28:19.

The birth of the Church at Pentecost Acts 2:1-15

On the day of Pentecost people came from different places and gathered in Jerusalem for the feast. This day was evidenced by the new-birth of new people whom we refer to as ‘the Church’. While they were praying the Holy Spirit came and all were filled with power and the Holy Ghost. They spoke different languages but had now become one people, born again by the Spirit of God. All barriers were broken down, such as religion, social, economic and even geographical. These people soon went out preaching Jesus to the whole world. Glasser said, “The various statements of the Great Commission underscore in a dynamic way the massive priority mission has over all other activities of the Spirit, even the formation of the Church”.[10] Peter’s proclamation when he “stood up with the Eleven”, Acts 2:14, was the first expression of Christian obedience to the task of mission.[11] Indeed, “The first cry of the new-born Church was the proclamation that Jesus is the Lord of heaven and the earth, as well as the Messiah of the Jews”.[12]

The Holy Spirit links both Old and New Testaments in this the mission of God. We also see prophecy has been fulfilled regarding the mission as it came from the prophet Joel who wrote, “And afterwards, I will pour out my Spirit on all people”, Joel 2:28. Peter used the keys of the Kingdom to inaugurate the beginning of the new day of salvation. Men and women, young and old, could now become new creatures in Christ, Jeremiah 31:33-34; Ezekiel 36:26-28. These groups of people could participate in the worldwide mission of the Christian Church. So then, Pentecost makes the initial fulfillment of the prophetic vision of the uplifted Temple in heavenly Zion. The difference that Pentecost made to mission is that the Holy Spirit made possible solid obedience to Jesus’ command to go out and witness. Witnessing was to be the very nature of the Church. What was external became an internal part consuming the disciples. Because of Pentecost, God’s command to go out and witness to what He has done in Jesus Christ became very much like the cultural mandate of the New Testament Church.

The Holy Spirit and mission

Pentecost created a new race of people where the new ‘law’ was to ‘go forth and multiply’, this time to create spiritual children who worship the same Lord and Christ as their parents do. The Spirit of Pentecost creates missionaries of everyone who is lived in by the Spirit. The Holy Spirit of Pentecost burns and purifies individuals so that we might be transformed into people who reflect accurately the love of God to this world. The Spirit of Pentecost, who is the witnessing Spirit, is always desiring to witness to the world of what Christ has done. He moves the children of God into the world so that through His power they might tell others about Jesus Christ, who now sits at the right hand of the Father in glory and power. Pentecost happened so that the mission of God to this world might go on, that the disciples of Jesus Christ might do even greater things than He did, that they might bring the reality of His salvation to the whole world.

God’s plan for both Jews and Gentiles Ephesians 3:1-10

In this passage God’s plan for the entire Christian world, Jews and Gentiles, is to proclaim the mission of God to all unreached groups. Upon the reception of the Holy Spirit’s purity and power they were to take the message to the world. They were to be missionaries, not for Jewish culture, but to proclaim the good news of God’s mission of saving and restoring people from sin and despair. They were to make disciples of all nations by teaching the Christian doctrine of salvation through Jesus Christ as He had commanded them, Matthew 28:18-20. The eleven apostles were successful at taking the gospel to the Jews, especially in Jerusalem, but it appears they were not as focussed on the Gentiles. Their lack of focus was most likely due to their Jewish cultural barriers, see Acts 10.

In the plan and wisdom of God the apostle Paul was chosen for cross-cultural mission outside Israel to the Gentiles, to unite Jews and Gentiles by the gospel of Jesus. Paul did not allow cultural or ethnic differences to hinder the mission of God. He became “all things to all people”, 1 Corinthians 9:19-23, to see Jews and Gentiles saved. He conveyed the role of the Gentiles in the dispensation of the grace of God. Paul acknowledged God in the prison. He stated that, (permit my paraphrases), ‘Christ Jesus made me a prisoner, so that I could help you Gentiles’, Ephesians 3:1. In the same way Paul mentioned that ‘God has treated me with kindness. His power worked in me and it became my job to spread the good news’, Ephesians 3:2-7.

In Ephesus Paul found “a wide door for effective work.” He also discovered that there were “many adversaries”, 1 Corinthians 16:9. The one often accompanies the other. Paul had a very turbulent career. In nearly every city his preaching precipitated a citywide riot. Time and again he barely escaped with his life. Sometimes he was told to remain where he was despite danger, as in the city of Corinth, Acts 18:9-10. At other times he was told to flee, as was the case in Jerusalem, Acts 22:17-18. But whether he stayed or escaped was inconsequential. His chief concern was to preach Jesus Christ. He never allowed circumstances, good or bad, to determine his course of action. He got his guidance from God. Once he received the green light, he pressed forward without hesitation, knowing that God would hold Himself responsible for all the consequences that flowed from his obedience. Paul realised that safety and security are no guarantee of success. He also recognised that difficulty and danger do not necessarily spell disaster.

Application for current mission work

Human reasoning and logic would say that if God is truly sovereign over all His creation, the human creatures He created have no opportunity to make individual choices. And if they have a free will that can make personal choices, then God cannot be sovereign, because anything He does not control negates His being sovereign. But Scripture emphasises both the sovereignty of God and the free will of humankind. So instead of judging by human reasoning that both facts cannot coexist, we must honour the integrity of God’s Word, accept it and explain to the best of our limited human reason how both truths can be valid.

Over against these statements of God’s sovereignty, we have the Genesis account of God’s earliest interaction with human beings. When Adam and Eve chose to disobey God, He did not excuse them by saying it was His fault they had disobeyed. He laid the full penalty of the sin of disobedience on them, although at the same time He gave them a promise of salvation and escape from the penalty of their disobedience. In addition to this example of humankind’s responsibility, we also have the direct statement of scripture: “The one who sins is the one who will die”, Ezekiel 18:4, 20. Joshua’s challenge to the Israelites is a challenge for today: “But if serving the Lord seems undesirable to you, then choose for yourselves this day whom you will serve”, Joshua 24:15. “For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord”, Romans 6:23. God does not force individuals to sin. Yet He has ordained a penalty for voluntary sin, a penalty which must be paid. Every call to repentance in Scripture is an indication that God has given to humankind a free will. In the service God has given us we can choose right or wrong, and we will be responsible before God for our choice. Politicians, civic or church officials, may fear the electorate when their post comes up for renewal. Let me tell you, fearing Almighty God and His judgement is far more serious for you and yet far healthier too.

In these passages God reveals Himself to mankind in a unique way. It was God’s intention that man should live in conformity to the law of God and work in harmony with the purpose of God. He took man into partnership with Himself and made him His representative on earth. God wanted His people to share things together and visit each other in home fellowship beyond race, culture and Christian denominations, as we have seen in the Acts of the Apostles. As we participate and share in the body of Christ, people will have different gifts as the scripture says. Some will see visions or dreams. The Holy Spirit will enable the church with the gifts like ministerial gifts and gifts of service. According to Ephesians 4:11-16, these are to equip and grow the church into maturity. Thus, the Holy Spirit allows the Church to engage in mission.

Our local church, in collaboration with other Christian organisations, carried out church planting missions to unreached people groups. We lived in a predominantly Muslim country at that time. Missionaries have a special calling and usually expand their witness beyond the general locality of their churches. Their work usually involves travelling to an unreached region to proclaim the good news, set up churches and further preach the gospel of Jesus and His Kingdom. The leaders of the churches along with the laity are to support the endeavour of its missionaries. All members of the church are to be unified and working for the Lord in all they do, Colossians 3:23-24. Each has his or her own God-given gift(s) and all are critical for a unified, efficient, missionary effort. The Church is charged with taking the good news of the grace of our Lord Jesus and the incoming of His kingdom to all people. It is also charged with perpetuating itself, using appropriate structures and leadership. As believers mature in the local congregations, missionaries are sent from them and new churches/congregations are established wherever they go. The mission of God will continue, looking forward to the coming Kingdom of God on earth and in heaven.

Summary and Conclusion

In considering ‘Leadership, Integrity and Nation-building’ all Christian believers must keep in mind God’s mission: to bring about harmony to His world and His Kingdom. His mission continues to progress. The Church currently proclaims the good news of salvation with a view to seeing the coming of God’s Kingdom. In the non-church world Christians can take their stand by living according to the discipleship requirements of our Lord Jesus Christ. One day the grand petition in our Lord’s taught prayer will become reality: “Your Kingdom come and Your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven”, Matthew 6:10. This golden age is eagerly anticipated by all of creation. It is for this purpose God is working through the Church – His people in every sphere – to bring heaven to earth and so restore what was lost from the time in creation when Adam fell. At that glorious restoration humankind will worship and serve the Creator as co-rulers in His Kingdom.

May it be soon, Lord Jesus. Please!

Discussion guide

Using this chapter and Scriptures quoted

  1. “No human leader should work for his own glory … Only God Almighty can do so because He alone is worthy of all the praise and the glory creation can offer Him”. Why is it wrong for any person to work for their own glory? How can it be right for God to seek His own glory? Is God horribly proud? Why? Why not?

  2. “Reconciliation and harmony among all the people we are responsible for are excellent ways to be working with God, rather than against Him”. Explain this statement. Consider Genesis 12:3b; Genesis 17:1-7; Matthew 28:18-20; Acts 3:25; Galatians 3:7-8. What is God’s ultimate objective?

  3. What is the significance of the repeated phrase “and the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord” as He worked among them for the Israelite? See Exodus 7:5; 7:17; 9:14-16. Who is witnessing to whom? And through whom? And about what? How does this apply today?

  4. How do you understand “worship (God) in the Spirit and in truth”? John 4:24. Why does the phrase “… salvation is from the Jews” expand, and yet specify, this “worship” both at the same time? John 4:22, 24. How is Christianity all-encompassing and yet concurrently exclusive? John 14:6.

  5. With all we have seen so far in mind, answer the question of Acts 2:12, “What does this mean”? Why did God ensure so many different peoples had gathered for Pentecost in Jerusalem? Did He want anything from it? What is the lesson for us? Include other stories from Acts in your answer.

  6. “In considering ‘Leadership, Integrity and Nation-building’ all Christian believers must keep in mind God’s mission: to bring about harmony to His world and His Kingdom”. Why? Why not? How?

  7. Think about another of David’s phrases, “Pentecost created a new race of people where the new ‘law’ was to ‘go forth and multiply’, this time to create spiritual children who worship the same Lord and Christ as their parents do”. From Genesis 1:27-28; 2:15-17 and 2:21-25, draw parallels between what Adam and Eve were to do in their time and what we are to do in ours. Keep in mind we must work with God in what He is doing.

[1] Herbert J. Kane Understanding Christian Missions (Baker Book House: Grand Rapids, MI) 1986, p.86. [2] Redford B. Shawn. Biblical Theology of Mission unpublished lecture note: Nairobi Evangelical Graduate School of Theology, Nairobi, Kenya 2012. Slightly amended. [3] Arthur F. Glasser Announcing the Kingdom: The Story of God’s Mission in the Bible (Baker Academics: Grand Rapids, MI) 2003, p.57. [4] George W. Peters A Biblical Theology of Missions (Moody Press: Chicago IL) 1972, p.108. [5] Arthur F. Glasser Announcing the Kingdom: The Story of God’s Mission in the Bible (Baker Academics: Grand Rapids, MI) 2003, p.58. [6] Arthur F. Glasser Announcing the Kingdom: The Story of God’s Mission in the Bible (Baker Academics: Grand Rapids, MI) 2003, p.59. [7]Arthur F. Glasser Announcing the Kingdom: The Story of God’s Mission in the Bible (Baker Academics: Grand Rapids, MI) 2003, p.67. [8] Herbert J. Kane Understanding Christian Missions (Baker Book House: Grand Rapids MI) 1986, p.87. [9] Arthur F. Glasser Announcing the Kingdom: The Story of God’s Mission in the Bible (Baker Academics: Grand Rapids, MI) 2003, p.260. [10]Arthur F. Glasser Announcing the Kingdom: The Story of God’s Mission in the Bible (Baker Academics: Grand Rapids, MI) 2003, p.262. [11] I accept, perhaps the second, if you include waiting in Jerusalem for the Holy Spirit to come, Acts 1:4; 2:1-2. [12]Arthur F. Glasser Announcing the Kingdom: The Story of God’s Mission in the Bible (Baker Academics: Grand Rapids, MI) 2003, p.262. Quoting Krauss with reference to Acts 2.


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