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8. Sheep and Shepherds

Leadership, Integrity and Nation building.

– by Amoko Fodomula

In this chapter we will be asking questions and answering about:

  • Who is the sheep or the follower?

  • What is the role of the sheep/follower to the shepherd/leader?

  • How can we develop sheep/followers?

  • What are the characteristics of sheep/followers?

  • What are the benefits for the sheep from the shepherd (or pastor)?

We will draw examples from real living animals and from working shepherds.

On the other side, we will also be asking questions and answering about:

  • Who is the shepherd/pastor/leader?

  • What are the characters or qualities of the shepherd/pastor/leader?

  • How can you or I become a shepherd/pastor/leader?

  • Are shepherds created, born, made, called, trained or mentored?

  • What are the roles or responsibilities of the shepherd/pastor/leader towards the sheep/followers?

  • What is the importance of the shepherd/pastor/leader to the sheep/followers?

  • What can the shepherd/pastor/leader benefit from the sheep/followers?

The sheep/followers?

It is clear from the Bible, especially Ezekiel 34:17-22 and Jeremiah 10:21; 23:1-4 and more, that there are sheep/flock/followers who are acting and acted irresponsibly towards one another. That is why the prophet spoke to them strongly by saying, “As for you, my flock, this is what the Sovereign Lord says: I will judge between one sheep and another, and between rams and goats. Is it not enough for you to feed on the good pasture? Must you trample the rest of your pasture with your feet? Is it not enough for you to drink clear water? Must you also muddy the rest with your feet? Must my flock feed on what you have trampled and drink what you have muddied with your feet?” Ezekiel 34:17-19.

Some of many Bible verses about sheep in both Old and New Testaments:

1) We are regarded as sheep to be slaughtered, Psalm 44:22

2) … the sheep of His pasture, Psalm 100:3

3) I have strayed like a lost sheep, Psalm 119:176

4) We all like sheep have gone astray, Isaiah 53:6

5) And as a sheep before its shearer is silent, Isaiah 53:7

6) My people have been lost sheep, Jeremiah 50:6

7) I myself will search for my sheep and look after them, Ezekiel 34:11

8) Like sheep without a shepherd, Mathew 9:36

9) I am sending you out as sheep among wolves, Matthew 10:16

10) The sheep listen to his voice. He calls them by name, John 10:3

11) I am the gate for the sheep, John 10:7

12) I lay down my life for the sheep, John 10:15

13) My sheep listen to my voice; I know them, John 10:27

14) Jesus said, “Take care of my sheep”, John 21:16

15) We are considered as sheep to be slaughtered, Romans 8:36

16) Our Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd of the sheep, Hebrews 13:20

17) You were like sheep going astray, 1 Peter 2:25

1. Who are the sheep/followers?

Followers are the animals/people who are under the care of the shepherd/pastor/ leader. They are to listen to the shepherd as a guiding person, a leading person who steers them towards green pastures, resting places, where they can get water, security and satisfaction.[1]

2. What is the role of the sheep/follower to the shepherd/leader?

These 13 points are gathered from the writer’s own experiences as a former shepherd and sheep-keeper.

The sheep is to:

a) Provide milk for the shepherd

b) Provide meat for the shepherd

c) Provide wool for the shepherd

d) Provide skin for the shepherd

e) Provide lambs born for the shepherd

f) Provide health to the shepherd’s family

g) Provide joy for the shepherd

h) Provide peace, hope and security to the shepherd

i) Provide manure for the shepherd

j) Provide friends and warn the shepherd of enemies

k) Provide wealth for the shepherd

l) Provide suffering and sleepless nights to the shepherd!

m) Develop patience and self-control in the shepherd’s life

3. How can we make sheep or a flock into followers?

For you to have sheep:

1) You must work hard to be able to buy them

2) You may inherit some from your parents

3) Someone can entrust you to take care of his sheep, then later you will have your own, like Jacob who worked with his father-in-law for some years to have his own flock, Genesis 29:14-30

4) According to some cultures in South Sudan, if you have sisters then in future you will receive animals or flock when they get married. You also can get married yourself by using the animals as a dowry

4. What are the character qualities of the sheep/followers?

Sheep are to:

1) Obey the shepherd. Obedient sheep will always be protected by the shepherd. But any sheep that is not obedient will go through difficult times in life. Sometimes it will fall into a trap for the wild animals, or it may be beaten or must have its leg broken, or be tied down with a rope, in order not to create any unnecessary havoc for the shepherd.

2) Follow the shepherd. Any sheep who would like to go on its own way is in danger(s) of being wounded or even killed, at the least bringing unnecessary troubles to the shepherd. They are the easiest chosen to be slaughtered first for occasions of food, or to be exchanged for some other goods, in order to give peace to the shepherd.

3) Provide for the shepherd. If we follow closely what is taking place in the church during the ordination or commissioning day of a minister or lay person, we discover about supporting. Before the Bishop lays hands on the new people who are to be ordained or commissioned, he will always say, ‘Oh people of God, I am presenting to you these servants whom we have just prepared to be ordained or commissioned in the office of deacons and priests. Will you support them and uphold them in your prayers as they undertake their services to God and His church?’ All this takes place while the Bishop is presenting them to the congregation or the laity, who are in this context the sheep/followers. Always the response of the laity is as follows, “We will support them”. Then the Bishop turns to the clergy and asks, “Do you receive them in your fellowship?” And the clergy will always respond, “We receive them gladly”. The laity and the clergy therefore commit themselves to support, uphold, receive and encourage the ordained people, and in general all the servants of the Lord. “But how do we fulfill our commitment to God in this as followers/sheep? How well do you keep your pastors/shepherds/leaders” in your churches?”[2]

4) To bring or to earn wealth for the shepherd. Keeping sheep is keeping wealth, because sheep are not just for fun.

5) To be productive. Sheep are supposed to grow in number. If they are not multiplying it means there is something wrong with them, or their land (environment), or even with their shepherd. Perhaps he neglects them?

6) To be healthy. If they are not healthy perhaps they will die or be sold to bring in new replacements which are healthy and productive. The owner must pay the costs of medication to benefit production. To have a healthy flock is a good sign of a good use of wealth.

The shepherd/pastor/leader

Bible verses about a shepherd or shepherds in Old and New Testaments:

a) The God who has been my shepherd all my life, Genesis 48:15

b) Scattered … like sheep without a shepherd, 1 Kings 22:17

c) You will shepherd my people Israel, 1 Chronicles 11:2

d) The Lord is my shepherd, I lack nothing, Psalm 23:1

e) The words of the wise … given by one Shepherd, Ecclesiastes 12:11

f) He tends his flock like a shepherd, Isaiah 40:11

g) He … will watch over his flock like a shepherd, Jeremiah 31:10

h) As a shepherd looks after his scattered flock when he is with them, so will I look after my sheep. I will rescue them … Ezekiel 34:12

i) He will stand and shepherd his flock in the strength of the Lord, Micah 5:4

j) People … oppressed for lack of a shepherd, Zechariah 10:2

k) Harassed and helpless, like sheep without a shepherd, Matthew 9:36

l) I am the good shepherd, John 10:11

m) The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep, John 10:11

n) I am the good shepherd. I know my sheep … John 10:14

o) Our Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd of the sheep, Hebrews 13:20

p) You have returned to the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls, 1 Peter 2:25

q) Be shepherds of God’s flock that is under your care, 1 Peter 5:2

r) And when the Chief Shepherd appears you will receive, 1 Peter 5:4

s) The Lamb at the centre of the throne will be their shepherd, Revelation 7:17

t) Then I will give you shepherds after my own heart, Jeremiah 3:15

u) Woe to the shepherds who are scattering and destroying the sheep of my pasture! declares the Lord Jeremiah 23:1

v) Should not shepherds take care of the flock? Ezekiel 34:2

w) There were shepherds … keeping watch over their flocks at night, Luke 2:8

x) The evangelists, the pastors/shepherds and teachers, Ephesians 4:11

1. Who is the shepherd/leader?

The word shepherd has to do with the responsibility of the church to take care of the local congregation members, who are called the sheep. Christ is the Chief Shepherd of all His sheep, 1 Peter 5:4, and He is the role model for each local shepherd/pastor/leader. Our character is supposed to be as Jesus; our role like the way Jesus is the care-taker for His people. Local pastors or leaders are to be examples of loving care, humility, patience and concern for their sheep. Pastors and elders are specifically warned by the apostle Peter not to use their positions of leadership for personal power or financial gain, 1 Peter 5:2-3. Surely this applies to civic leaders as well?

The biblical shepherd illustrations may be literal or metaphorical. They may mean people who oversee sheep (the animals), or leaders who are leading people similar to themselves, or both. They can be politically or spiritually in charge of their fellow men.[3] Talking about leader/shepherd/pastor is talking about leadership, and talking about leadership is talking about the futures of family, community, organisation, or nation, all of which depend upon the quality of its leadership. “That is why it is important to develop the right kind of leaders for the right leadership in the world.”[4]

It seems from reading the Bible there are two types of shepherds: ones who are feeding the sheep by taking care of them, and others who are feeding off the sheep for themselves by mistreating them. That is why the Lord has to speak to them through prophets such as Ezekiel, “Thus says the Lord ‘Woe to you shepherds of Israel who only take care of yourselves! Should not shepherds take care of the flock? You eat the curds, clothe yourselves with the wool, you slaughter the choice animals; but you do not take care of the flock. You have not strengthened the weak, or healed those who are ill or bound up those who are injured. You have not brought back the strays or searched for the lost. You have ruled them harshly and brutally’”, Ezekiel 34:1-4.

2. What are the characteristic qualities of the shepherd/leader?

Although shepherds are known as people who take care, or are care-takers, of their flocks, I read some books on Masai people groups in Kenya. I saw that they are warriors which created in me a fear that it is not easy to deal with Masai people. But to my surprise, in 2014 while I visited Magadi and Ngrumani Masai land, in the mountainous area, I was surprised to interact with real Masai in their Manyatas (local houses). I found out that these people are friendly and not as people had written about them or portrayed in their pictures. Today I have many friends among them. I have visited them in their homes and they are connected to my family members, even inviting my children to visit them in their villages around Nairobi. While in Ngrumani I tried to investigate from some Masai elders why people think that Masai are warriors? This Muze (an old man) whom I prayed for was healed instantly in his home state. His son, Moses, had requested me to go with him and pray for his father at their home. He had been sick for some months. He tried to explain to me through his son’s interpretation, “My son Amoko, you need to hear and learn from us not from others, because people can say anything about other people, sometimes things that are not true”. Moses’ father continued to say to me that “We Masais are very friendly to people but we are accused of being warriors because of our lifestyles which are forced on us by the nature of our living. We are surrounded by enemies because of our wealth, which is our animals, our flocks. We are being attacked by wild animals from the bush trying to take our lives. On the other hand, we are being ambushed by people who want to take our animals from us. We must be aggressive to protect ourselves and our properties. We are not warriors, please let them know this”. Even those who are saying what they are saying will not accept others to play with their lives to the extent of destroying their properties. Thank God He enabled me to influence the Muze’s son, Moses, to the extent he is now in Bible school in Nairobi.

Shepherd leaders are:

  • pursuers, like Jacob

  • stewards, keeping safely the trusts of their owners, knowing one day they will give account of what they have done

  • protectors, like David

  • providers, feeding, watering and protecting their sheep

  • tent dwellers, like Moses – temporary and basic, not luxury

  • rescuers of the lost, like Abraham with Lot

  • strong people, devoted and selfless[5]

  • tender hearted people, like Abraham

  • people of faith in God, like Joseph

  • skilful people with defined values, like Joseph[6]

  • problem solvers, like David and Jonathan?

  • realistic leaders in their leadership, planning strategically[7]

  • above reproach. St. Paul said, “the overseer is to be above reproach” “a bishop then must be blameless” (KJV)[8] 1 Timothy 3:2.

  • having empathy, with ears to hear what people are saying and hearts feeling what people are going through in their nation. Shepherd leaders feel with their sheep, listening to their voices and knowing them by their names

  • have no partiality. Jesus as Chief Shepherd, out of His love for His Father and zeal for His glory kindled anger against those who had turned God’s house of prayer into a den of robbers, Matthew 21:13. His personality and authority was such that they accepted these challenges for the time. Jesus cares for His people. Local pastors are to be examples of similar loving care[9]

  • s church leaders they are prophets. Because the church leader is called to be not only a shepherd but also a prophet. To speak to the people of his or her own time, and messages from God that spring from the circumstances in which the prophet lives. This is why, in order to understand the message of a given Bible prophet, we need to know the history and social background of that prophet. But the source of the messages from true Old Testament prophets is divine. It is derived from neither observation nor intellectual thought, but from admission to the Council Chamber of God. That is why the prophet Amos was able to say; “Surely the sovereign Lord does nothing without revealing his plan to his servants the prophets”, Amos 3:7.[10]

  • as church leaders (and why not civic leaders too?) they lead the sheep to green feeding pastures, to still refreshing waters, restoring their souls physically and spiritually, leading the sheep on in the paths of righteousness for His (God’s) name’s sake. They also protect from fear because they are always present, comforting their flock, preparing table hospitality for them in presence of their enemies, checking their health by touching their heads and anointing them with oil, filling their cups until they overflow all day everyday of their lives, as they are forever living in the house of the Lord, from Psalm 23.

  • in the Old Testament there are two shepherds who are mentioned with special approval. Moses is one, Isaiah 63:11, and surprisingly Cyrus the heathen king, a killer of God’s people for God’s purpose, was also considered as a shepherd, Isaiah 44:28.

The Word of God stresses strongly the serious responsibility of all human leaders to those who follow them. They are to be lovers, who love their work of shepherding. At any time they are ready and willing to put their own interests aside and go to look for their sheep when any are in problems, lost, confused, wounded or in danger.

3. How can one become a shepherd/leader? Are shepherds created, born or made?

To become a shepherd, pastor or other leader, is a calling from God, after discovering that you are created in God’s image for the purposes of His kingdom. You then need to be motivated, developed, mentored, trained, molded, and be made to become a leader as you spiritually mature. Then you can be put in more ministry. The stages of becoming a leader are many but let me mention a few:

1) To become a leader you need to be a relational and reachable person, since leadership is the science of dealing with people and people’s problems, solving or offering solutions.

2) To become a leader you need to be connected to other people, because leaders do not work in a vacuum or isolation.

3) To become a leader you need to be trained and equipped for the role you are going to play in the church, community, nation, continent, or even the world.

4) To become a leader you need to be led and coached by another elder/leader who is experienced in life, probably in your upcoming role.

5) To become a leader you need to know that leadership is all about

reproducing and multiplying yourself in others, 2 Timothy 2:2.[11]

Training, modelling and releasing

1. What are important duties of the shepherd/leader towards the sheep/ followers?

The shepherd is important to the sheep/followers whom he or she is leading. In managing them as people with their properties, the leader is in leadership:

a) take courage by putting yourself at risk

b) take courage of being open for new ideas

c) evoke in the followers the capacity to dream

d) inspire the followers with a vision of what they can contribute

e) show the heart of a leader, speaking to the hearts of the followers

f) integrate hearts, heads and souls of the sheep/people

g) show an open mind and an open heart, being real in what you think and say

h) see the possibilities in a situation, while the sheep/followers are seeing only the limitations

i) gently lead them where they need to go. You need to be a visionary person, looking ahead. Know where you are taking the sheep/followers

j) provide security, harmony, peace and joy to and for the sheep. Let the followers know and feel that you are concerned about their needs as people, not just to be used for your own end plan

k) be a good helper to them all

l) advise them in their needs and develop them to their potential

2. What is the role/responsibility of the shepherd/pastor/leader towards the sheep/followers?

It is said that “nothing builds strong character like studying the lives of great Christians, who are the men and women of God who can mentor through their lives examples of faith”.[12] We can emulate and learn from their walk with God.

“The shepherd is there to bring changes”.[13] For change to happen leaders need to realise that impending change can produce adverse reactions in people because there are some conservative traditionalists for whom change can be seen as an unwelcome threat to their security.

The leader is to influence, not to control, the followers, as a servant leader. A pastor once said to me, “Authority is like soap: the more you use it, the less you have”. Too often leaders succumb to the temptation and use power to achieve their personal goals, or to get people to do what the leader wants, regardless of whether the follower’s heart agrees. The leader must not lord it over followers, Luke 22:25-27.

The apostle Paul writes to one of his fellow workers saying, “But I did not want to do anything without your consent, so that any favour you do would not seem forced but would be voluntary”, Philemon verse14. Following in the footsteps of Jesus, Peter or Paul, when they were addressing people in leadership, good leaders have a different way to lead so that the followers may grow in decision-making and respond to the will of God (and His leadership) from a willing heart. I heard someone saying one day, “A man convinced against his will remains a man unconvinced”.[14]

Shepherds need to let the sheep feel that they are owning the programme, the project, the organisation or the company. However, in most cases under some leaders they say, “I feel like I’m having no say or ownership in these decisions and I find myself resenting it”. The leader’s role is to build confidence and consensus into the followers so that they may feel some sense of ownership in any major decisions that are being made. This can be through articulating the issues or problems in a discussion, and by being a good listener. In so doing he or she sets an example that others will follow in listening to all points of view. Much sensitivity is needed in leadership, so a good leader is the one who is sensitive to the discussions, caring for everyone’s thoughts and ideas, before beginning to use his or her power to steer the group to an acceptable solution or conclusion. The leader may have to meet with some of the members or followers who are maintaining a firm position that seems to be against the consensus of the group. Since there are usually several options available, which include deciding not to decide for the moment, consensus building with influencing and persuasive leadership does not always work immediately in every situation, especially in Africa and I have heard in other parts of the world too!

The good leader is to disciple the followers for their future lives. Famous people in the world have many others who are following them through their examples and their being called ‘heroes’.

Many pastors, though sadly not all, feed their sheep, strengthen their weak, heal their sick, bring back their strayed, and look for their lost to bring them back. Similarly, there are good and bad civic leaders.

3. What are the benefits of the sheep to the shepherd/followers to the leaders?

If the shepherd works hard he or she will benefit from the sheep in different ways, such as bringing wealth to the family and inheritance to the coming children or generations. Sheep will bring joy and financial security to the family members. Sheep are the economy and pride of the nation. This wealth can lead to the family having factories for milk, shoes, bags, belts and anything for the commercial development and lifestyle in the nation or the world. Sheep wool is for making blankets and heavy clothes for the cold season.

Sheep are also used for solving family issues in Africa: they are for marriages, sold to get money for medical needs, travelling and any kind of needs in the family such as school fees for children. The list is very much too long for mentioning every item name by name. Followers need to pay attention to the shepherd, do what he is commanding or requesting them to do, be close to her, go with him in the same direction of life as long as they are following Christ Jesus. They have to do exactly what the shepherd is doing, as Jesus’ disciples did after understanding what the Lord was saying to them. Followers need to be ready for changes in life and be ready to go, with willing mind, to pay the price as disciples for Christ, and not just to the church leader who is discipling them. I was impressed by one brother when he was teaching about discipleship.

He mentioned the 7 ‘L’ s of discipleship:

1) Let go of old ways

2) Live with Jesus Christ as Lord

3) Learn from Jesus day by day

4) Listen to His teaching

5) Look to and meditate on His example

6) Look more and more at Jesus to the point of becoming like Him

7) Love Jesus (God) with whole heart, soul, mind, strength, and love neighbours as themselves, Mark 12:30-31.

It is a bit different for the sheep/animals. They:

8) provide milk for the shepherd and his family, especially for the children

9) provide meat for the shepherd and for the nation

10) provide wool for the shepherd and for the factory

11) provide skin for the shepherd and the leather workers factory

12) provide work for the shepherds and their dogs

13) provide health to the shepherd’s families

14) provide joy for the shepherd

15) provide peace, hope and security to the shepherd

16) provide manure for the shepherd

17) provide friends, and sometimes enemies, for the shepherd

18) provide wealth for the shepherd and the nation

19) provide suffering and sleepless nights to the shepherd in the ‘security’ of the countryside

20) develop patience and self-control in the shepherds and law makers of the country

21) build the capacity of the shepherd

22) connect the shepherd with others in his career of shepherding

4. For how long can the sheep continue as followers?

Sheep as animals are not supposed to be kept forever but are to be exchanged for some other goods. Even church members are not supposed to be kept in one place without being active in the body of Jesus Christ. They are to be active in the ministry, as Jesus said, “Go into the world”, Mark 16:15; Matthew 28:19. Christian leaders need to have the purpose of training and building up their followers for going into the whole world to extend the kingdom of God, according to Jesus’ Great Commissioning to the Christians in His holy word. Sheep are never to be kept for long in one place because they will start bringing troublesome problems to their shepherds. In some areas of our countries these people become the source of disputes between different neighbouring tribal people groups, especially when nomadic shepherds start crossing into the areas of settled agriculturalists who are not grazing animals, the pastoralists seeking grass for their animals and water for their sheep during drought and dry seasons of the year, the agriculturalists trying to grow planted crops.

Christian shepherding/pastoring is supposed to be for accommodating people starving for the word of God, taking care of their human needs as people of God by sowing love and compassion among them, as Jesus did to people in His life on earth as a Good Shepherd. “When he saw the crowds, he had compassion on them, because they were harassed and helpless, like sheep without a shepherd”, Matthew 9:36. The shepherd pastor’s concern is to feed his flock and ensure their good health for greater ministry in God’s Kingdom in the whole world, full of humility with the servant attitude, characterised by faith and obedience.


In this chapter we have discussed different relationship questions about sheep and their shepherds, people and their pastors, citizen followers and their leaders. We have drawn on life examples from real animals and my experience as a real shepherd. We have tried to keep a balance of the responsibilities of each group. The Bible frequently uses this analogy. Pray that we may all learn to play the role(s) God gives us, in ways that bring all glory to Him, in church, in work, in community, in government administration, wherever we may serve Him. Amen.

Discussion guide

Using this chapter and Scriptures quoted

1. Read Jeremiah 31:10. In what ways does God “watch over His flock like a shepherd”? Use Scriptures to back your suggestions.

2. Considering Amoko’s “own experiences as a former shepherd”, which of his 13 points are helpful for those ‘shepherding people’? Why?

3. Compare and contrast Psalm 23:1, “The Lord is my shepherd, I lack nothing”, with Matthew 9:35-38, “… the crowds … like sheep without a shepherd”. How do you see yourself? And the people of your country? What needs to be done about it?

4. By naming two leaders as His “shepherds” for His people, Moses in Isaiah 63:7-19, and Cyrus in Isaiah 44:24-28, what is Scripture saying about God Himself and human leaders? See also the narratives in Exodus 14:19-31 and 2 Chronicles 36:22-23.

5. “To become a shepherd, pastor or other leader, is a calling from God”. How can you know if you are being ‘called’? Give biblical examples.

6. Explain “authority is like soap: the more you use it, the less you have”.  Suggest ways of using any authority you may have, in view of Acts 20:28-31; Colossians 2:9-10; Philemon verse 14 and Hebrews 13:7.

7. “Sheep are never to be kept for long in one place because they will start bringing troublesome problems to their shepherds”. What lessons can human leaders of every sort learn from this observation?

[1] Edited D.J.Wiseman and others, New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition (Inter-Varsity Press: Nottingham, England) 2009. [2] Gitau, John K. Being Your Pastor’s Keeper (Majestic Publisher: Nairobi, Kenya) 2013. [3] Gitari, David M., Responsible Church Leadership (Acton Publishers: Nairobi, Kenya) 2005. [4] Page, Don, Effective Team Leadership, Learning to lead through Relationship (Evangel Publishing: Nairobi, Kenya) 2014. [5] Salter, Colin My life Alongside God’s Word; Biblical thinking for Sudanese and South Sudanese Christians Volume three (WeeFour publications: Redruth, Cornwall, England) 2015. [6] Stanko, John W. So many Leaders… So little Leadership; Beyond the power of position lies the price of Leadership (World Alive Publishers: Nairobi, Kenya) 2007. [7] Saffold, Guy S. Strategic Planning, Leadership Through Vision (Evangel Publisher House: Nairobi, Kenya) 2005. [8] KJV = King James Version also known as the Authorised Version of the Bible, dated 1604-1611. [9] O’Donovan, Wilbur Biblical Christianity in African Perspective (Oasis International, Wheaton, Illinois, USA) 1997. [10] King James Version Bible Commentary (Thomas Nelson: Nashville, Tennessee, USA) 2015. [11] “Leadership training is an ongoing process for disciple making” (The Timothy Initiative Manual: International Version). [12] Mwangi, Susan Called to serve, Archbishop Benjamin Nzimbi, A Biography (Blossom Books, Nairobi, Kenya) 2009. [13] Dinnen, Stewart You can learn to lead, Manual for people in leadership (Christian Focus: Fearn, Scotland) 1997. [14] “A man convinced against his will, is of the same opinion still”. Samuel Butler's (1612-1680) 17th-century poem Hudibras Part III, Canto iii, lines 547-550. Also, Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797), notes to Chapter 5 of her 1792 treatise A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Accessed 15th August 2017 at . Used by Benjamin Franklin and Dale Carnegie much later.


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