Leadership, Integrity and Nation building.
- by David Mamush Jangjuol
I have observed that the state of leadership in the local church and national level worldwide is very wanting and that there is need to look at Jesus’ philosophy of leadership which should be the model for the family, church and the national institutions to follow. This will then help the appointed and elected leaders in public offices, organisations and churches, to be good leaders and guide the institutions they serve in the way that Jesus wants these organisations to move. When leaders are not leading in the right way, there is usually confusion and unrest in public institutions and churches but when the leadership is good then there is harmony.
In this chapter, I will define the term leadership, address the issue of Jesus’ philosophy of leadership by looking into Jesus’ model on leadership and what contemporary Christian leaders should have as characteristics in their lives. At the conclusion I will give my own thoughts on the discussion of Jesus’ philosophy on leadership, including the application to regional, state and national government leadership.
Definition of leadership
The word “leadership” which is a noun comes from another noun “leader” which has been defined as “a person in front or goes first or a person who guides or directs a group or a movement.” In this paper, while talking about “leadership”, I will be basing my discussion on the definition given by Ajith Fernando in his book “Leadership Lifestyle” because of the way he gives the definition of the term as viewed in the Bible. He says that “Leadership in the Bible is viewed first of all as the influence for good one has on another.”
One of today’s big questions is, ‘what is integrity’? Think about someone who has integrity… The basic meaning of “integrity” in the Old Testament is the soundness of character and adherence to moral principle; i.e. uprightness and honesty, “a clear conscience and clean hands”, Genesis 20:5. A common expression is to walk in integrity, indicating ‘an habitual manner of life’. In Proverbs integrity is seen as an essential characteristic of upright life: God will protect those who walk in it, 2:7, their security is assured, 2:21, it is a trustworthy guide for living, 11:3, and better than wealth, 19:1, 28:6. The word “integrity” does not occur in the New Testament, but its equivalents may be seen in sincerity, truth, the pure heart, and the single eyes, etc. In the above sense of simplicity of intention. It is equivalent to being honest, sincere, and genuine, all of which are fundamental to true character.
In Sudan, Khartoum Christian Center (KCC), which was founded in 1999 under the denomination of Sudan Pentecostal Church, demonstrated a leadership style in the secular nation. KCC is a Christian institution (organisation/church) that “exists to glorify God, to build up the body of Christ, to preach the gospel to every tribe, tongue, people and nation”. Moreover, KCC’s vision still alive at International Christian Assembly (ICA) as the consequence of ‘genuineness and sincerity’ in the former assembly. Leaders must put character above wealth for a family, church and nation to thrive. In KCC accountability for the funds God has entrusted in our hands is the core for all KCC members, the leadership and partners who give generously to reach our vision. Therefore our integrity depends on using and accounting for these resources in ways that are consistent with what the Word of God teaches us. As you sow, so shall you reap 1 Corinthians 9:11. Every church, whatever its size, should conduct all its affairs in an organised manner, in particular financial affairs. In recent years concerns have been raised over the ethics and legality of the methods some churches use in handling of church funds, bookkeeping, unethical fund raising techniques and the misappropriation of donated monies. There have been many questions. The church leadership must take time to understand, agree on and follow standard procedures and policy guide lines put in place earlier. 2 Corinthians 8:21 gives a definition of accountability as “we are taking pains to do what is right, not only in the eyes of the Lord but also in the eyes of man”.
Management of resources at an individual or entity level should lead to visible results in the form of either tangible goods or services. For government and its agencies, this becomes evident in service delivery whose impact manifests in improvement of the economic development, general standards of living, poverty reduction, mitigation of inequalities in income distribution, and improvement in the general well-being of its citizens.
There have been continuous efforts by global stakeholders aimed at formulating and adopting strategies and practices to sustainably address issues of poor resources management and their consequences. In Africa these approaches include professionalisation of public services, democratic governance and adoption of decentralised governments. The need for prudent management of funds if development objectives are to be achieved is emphasised in many circles. In discussing the importance of funds management in national and global agendas and practice, Andjun argues that efficient public finance management is an integral component of economic growth and has the ability to reduce poverty in a sustainable manner. As well as national government and its agencies, churches too can benefit much from these principles – but only when they are put into action.
Jesus’ style of leadership: 1. Servant leadership
Jesus Christ in His leadership was a servant-leader. As a leader, He did not sit back and have the disciples do the hard work. He did the hard work and the disciples only helped out! He taught them that a good leader is the one who serves his people not the one who burdens them while he sits down and watches. In Mark 10: 42-45, Jesus says: “You know that those who are regarded as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their high officials exercise authority over them. Not so with you. Instead, whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant, and whoever wants to be first must be slave of all. For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many”. From this passage, Jesus Christ “defined greatness as being a servant and being first as becoming a slave”. When Jesus taught about servanthood and suffering, His intention was not merely to encourage good behaviour but He wanted to impart the spirit of servanthood, the sense of personal commitment and identity. He says in Luke 22:27, “For who is greater, the one who is at the table or the one who serves? Is it not the one who is at the table? But I am among you as one who serves”.
As a servant, Jesus depended on God in everything that He did. He was God, with godly powers, but He only used His power as God the Father directed Him. He knew what it meant to submit as He submitted to God the Father. “. . . the Son can do nothing by himself; He can only do what He sees His Father doing . . .”, John 5:19.
Jesus left His kingdom in heaven, came on earth to live with the people, go through what they were going through and understand them before ministering to them. He was born here, and brought up like any other child. He helped His ‘father’ Joseph to do carpentry. He knew what it meant to be hungry, sick and homeless as He encountered the hungry, sick and homeless. He knew what it meant to be tired and have nowhere to put His head. He knew what it meant to have someone you love die. The Bible says in John 11:35 that when He reached Lazarus’s tomb, “Jesus wept”. Because of these experiences, Jesus ministered to His followers well, because He understood them and felt their needs. He knew what it meant to suffer even suffering on the cross with all that humiliation.
The above discussion on servant leadership by Jesus Christ can be summarised by what has been discussed by Philip Greenslade who says that ‘Servanthood’ according to Douglas Webster’s dictionary words means “to suggest a multi-service agency, responding to every request, rather like a continuing bob-a-job week but of course without a bob”. Greenslade continues to say that, “a servant leader is God’s man first and foremost for he has been chosen by God, upheld by God and he delights in Him”. He goes ahead and says that a servant leader does not “draw needless attention to himself, is marked by gentleness, keen to encourage the weak and bolster confidence of the timid, seeks to impart faith and hope to the dispirited and fan into flame potential gifts and abilities in others”.
I would like to conclude this section concerning servant leadership of Jesus Christ by quoting the following, “Jesus was a Servant Leader in every sense of the concept. He served His mission (in biblical language, ‘the will of [His] father’) and led by serving those He recruited to carry out that mission.” Do you think that your style of leadership, in the sphere of national government, state and regional councils, tribal traditions or church ministry, is seen by others as being ‘majority servanthood’? What changes must you plan to make it so?
Jesus’ style of leadership: 2. Good shepherd
Another aspect that is seen of Jesus’ model for leadership is that of being a ‘Good Shepherd’. Of all the pictures of Jesus Christ given by the gospels, “the one which shows Him as a Shepherd has a particular appeal and special relevance to leadership”. Jesus as the Good Shepherd, “would rule, feed, gather, carry and lead God’s people, lay down His life in a unique redemptive sacrifice, rise up in resurrection to confirm the covenant and reward the faithful under-shepherds”.
Greenslade discusses the aspect of Jesus Christ as the Good Shepherd by talking about the secrets of a Good Shepherd and supports his arguments with the Scriptures:
The first characteristic of a Good Shepherd is that he goes through the same door as the sheep and Greenslade supports this argument with John 10:1 which says, “Very truly I tell you Pharisees, anyone who does not enter the sheepfold by the gate, but climbs in by some other way, is a thief and a robber”.
He, “calls his own sheep by name and leads them out”, John 10:3.
He delivers his people, “When he has brought out all his own….” John 10:4.
He leads from the front, “… he goes on ahead of them….” John 10:4.
He is trusted for his voice John 10:4, “…, and his sheep follow him because they know his voice”.
He always, guards the entrance to the fold. “Very truly I tell you, I am the gate for the sheep”, John 10:7.
He is not afraid of confrontation. “The hired hand is not the shepherd and does not own the sheep. So when he sees the wolf coming, he abandons the sheep and runs away. Then the wolf attacks the flock and scatters it. The man runs away because he is a hired hand and cares nothing for the sheep”, John 10:12-13.
He feeds the sheep. John 10:9 “and find pasture”.
He cares for the sheep at cost to himself, John10:11, “I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep”.
He is interested in the whole of God’s flock, John 10:16, “I have other sheep that are not of this sheep pen. I must bring them also. They too will listen to my voice, and there shall be one flock and one shepherd”.
How many of these ten characteristics of ‘Good Shepherd leadership’ do you think that other people see in you? Wherever God has given you leadership, in secular or religious fields, to honour God you must become more and more like the Lord Jesus in caring for your people.
Jesus’ style of leadership: 3. Living example
Jesus lived His leadership. He stayed with His followers and showed them how to lead by modelling. He allowed them to see what good leadership is all about. He practised what He taught so that even His enemies had no true cause to accuse Him of.
Jesus knew that this aspect of leadership was very important and yet His disciples seemed slow to understand. He taught by demonstrating what it meant for a leader to be a servant. He literally took a towel, tied it around His waist and washed the disciples’ feet (part of the body that was considered to be the dirtiest) and He urged them to do the same to others, John 13: 5–17.
Jesus usually took time off to pray because He knew as a leader it was important for Him to seek God’s will every day. He even taught His disciples how to pray, Luke 11:1-4. Apart from just teaching this, He demonstrated it by actually living a life of prayer. He secluded Himself in the mornings to pray. He prayed for Himself, John 17:1-5, and His followers, John 17:6-25. He gave thanks to God for the provision of meals and even prayed for those who persecuted Him that God would forgive them.
When He taught about being in authority and being subject to authority, He also demonstrated both. He did not tell people not to give taxes to Caesar when the Pharisees asked Him whether they should or should not give such taxes. Instead, He answered by saying: “Give back to Caesar what is Caesar’s, and to God what is God’s”, Matthew 22:21. Another instance is when Peter was asked whether Jesus usually pays the temple tax, He answered that He does. Jesus then sent Peter to the lake to get a coin from the fish that will be fished out of the lake and use it to pay the tax, Matthew 17:24-27.
Jesus’ style of leadership: 4. Power and authority
One of the things that Jesus was known to possess was power and authority. He spoke with authority, acted with authority and taught with authority, Mark 1:22-27. When He gave a command, even the demons, the wind and the water obeyed Him. He used His authority responsibly for the wellbeing of His people. With His word He commanded sickness out, forgave sin and rebuked where it was needed. This authority just emanated from within Him. The crowds noted it was there, the Pharisees and the Scribes felt it, even demons recognised it. For Him power and authority went hand in hand without abuse or contradiction. Jesus had authority through the words that He spoke. He made it clear to the people that He had the power and authority to forgive sins, give life or take it, and even provide in abundance. His word was power and it carried His authority.
As a leader, He did not encourage injustice in the society. He rebuked the Pharisees for being bad leaders who did not do what they taught. He rebuked them further for being leaders who just wanted to show off but did not actually live to the expected standards. He used the power and authority that had been bestowed to Him to bring positive change in the community He lived in.
Jesus’ style of leadership: 5. Delegation
The type of leadership that Jesus lived was not that of selfishness. His leadership was one of sharing power. He started off by recruiting those He wanted to train as leaders. He chose the Twelve disciples and asked them to follow Him. He did not impose it on them but gave them a choice of whether to follow or not. This He did after prayer, Mark 3:13-19. The fact that He chose after prayer tells us that it is very important to seek God’s face before choosing leaders. He trained His disciples in their leadership duties by allowing them to be involved in His ministry, for example in the distribution of food to the crowds and collecting the leftovers. He then concentrated on the Twelve teaching them what He felt was relevant in this field, and when He felt that they were ready, He delegated some of the power and authority to them. He then sent them out to exercise that power and authority; giving them instructions on what to do and what to avoid, Matthew 10:1-42.
The Lord Jesus warned them of some of the challenges they were likely to encounter and how to go about facing them. He made it clear to them that leadership was not an easy task; that they would be exposed to suffering and pain for the sake of the ministry but that they needed to be committed, patient and should develop endurance. He wanted the disciples to be great leaders just as He was, and needed them to have the experience of being in leadership before He ascended back to heaven. When they came back from this assignment that He had given them, He was there for them, ready to respond to their questions and challenges, in order to help them improve on their leadership techniques, Mark 6:30. He listened to them as they narrated their experiences and explained to them why they failed in particular areas. He, “shared responsibility and authority with those He had called to lead”, a quality later copied by the Twelve, Acts 6:1-6. Every good leader keeps a loose grip on his/her position. The Christian in any leadership role always looks at enhancing other members of the team.
Jesus’ style of leadership: 6. Vision
He had a clear vision of where He wanted to take the Twelve whom He had chosen. They were to be with Him so that they would share from His life. He lived with them allowing them to get into His privacy, to try His patience by their unbelief and their slow understanding of issues and even share in His lack of food, home, etc. After they had learned from Him, He was then to send them out to preach and to have authority to drive out demons thus gaining more experience for themselves, Mark 3:14-15. At the same time, Jesus had a vision of sharing with them His kingdom in heaven by making them co-heirs with Him. He had a vision to: “Create, articulate and communicate a compelling vision; to change what people talk about and dream of; to make His followers transcend self-interest; to enable us to see ourselves and the world in a new way; to provide prophetic insight into the very heart of things; and to bring about the highest order of change”.
Jesus’ style of leadership: 7. Stewardship
Jesus was a good steward of everything that had been entrusted to Him by God the Father. He was accountable, responsible, trustworthy, etc. This He demonstrated and taught through the parables. In the parables, “the concept of ‘stewardship’ was one Jesus frequently employed….”. There are three principles that clearly come out about stewardship which can be found in Luke 16:1-14, in the parable of the shrewd manager. These are: the man who is faithful in small things can be expected to handle big things. “Whoever can be trusted with very little can also be trusted with much and whoever is dishonest with very little will also be dishonest with much”, Luke 16:10. Secondly, the man who is faithful in handling material things can be trusted to handle spiritual things. “…if you have not been trustworthy in handling worldly wealth, who will trust you with true riches?” Luke 16:11. Thirdly, a man who is faithful in what belongs to someone else can be trusted with his own. “And if you have not been trustworthy with someone else’s property who will give you property of your own?”, Luke 16:12.
The Lord Jesus was a good steward even where power and authority were concerned. He never misused His power just to brag that He had it, neither did He use it to harm others. Instead He allowed Himself to suffer and die on the cross – a shameful death – for the sake of His followers. He was faithful in all things small and big, material and spiritual because He knew everything belonged to the Father. This challenges all of today’s leaders to examine themselves regularly against the standards God Himself has set for them.
Jesus’ style of leadership: 8. Communication
Jesus was a good communicator. He was an excellent orator; how else could He draw to Himself such large crowds of people who listened whenever He stood up to speak? His words suited both the audience and the occasion. His words could be both simple and mysterious. Whenever He spoke, the crowds marvelled at His words and followed Him in order to hear more of His teachings.
In His communication, it can be deduced that He knew His audience well; thus He knew when to use parables, ask questions, listen or give commands. He knew how to capture the attention of His followers. He was a good listener too and the account of the Samaritan woman in John 4 signifies this well. The fact that He listened to her made a great impact on her, since being a “prostitute” she was despised by the society. He listened to the disciples, the centurion, the Pharisees and Scribes. He listened to the blind, and the lame, the children and the adults. He listened to all who talked to Him and responded to them as He felt best. The fact that He was a good listener made Him a good counsellor too.
Jesus’ style of leadership: 9. Worked with a team
Jesus could have done the work He came to do on His own. He was able to do it without anybody’s help but He did not. Instead He chose the Twelve disciples and organised them in to a team with whom He worked. “He built a sense of teamwork and loyalty among this disparate group of twelve individuals and through them turned the world upside-down. Jesus has been called the greatest leader of all time because He demonstrated servant leadership and made His disciples into team players”.
Jesus knew that if what He had started was to last, and if His mission was to be completed, then He could not work alone. He needed people to work with Him so that when He left, the work could continue. If He had not done this then maybe the work would have stopped, which was not His vision. When His term of three or so years was over Jesus handed the keys to Peter, who was to take over as leader of the team, and commanded him to “feed the sheep”.  So Jesus Christ built a team to carry out a worldwide vision”. 
Jesus’ style of leadership: 10. Credibility
Jesus was a credible leader. He was able to be believed and trusted. There is nowhere in the Scripture where He is said to have gone against His word. He always stood by the truth even if it meant suffering for it. He was a good steward of what God the Father had placed Him in charge of. He respected those in power but rebuked them when they went astray in their leadership. He paid taxes when He needed to and used His authority with great care.
Jesus’ style of leadership: 11. Led by the Spirit
Jesus did not start His ministry until the Holy Spirit of God came to Him, Matthew 3:16. He waited. When the Holy Spirit came to Him He led Him into the desert, Matthew 4:1, and strengthened Him before He started His ministry, Matthew 4:17. Thus all that He did was because of the leading of the Holy Spirit, not out of His fleshly desires or feelings. That is one of the reasons why He took time to pray, to continually get the strength and direction from the Holy Spirit. He emphasised the importance of a leader being filled with the Holy Spirit before embarking on ministry by urging the disciples to remain in Jerusalem until the Holy Spirit came upon them. Waiting was obedience before they went out to preach the Good News. This they did, and the effect was that they had their first powerful mission immediately the Holy Spirit came upon them, an outreach mission that saw many come to accept the message as stated in Acts 2:41, “Those who accepted his message were baptised, and about three thousand were added to their number that day”.
Jesus’ style of leadership: 12. A prayerful life
“Prayer is the most ancient, most universal, most intense expression of the religious instinct. It touches infinite extremes, for it is at once the simplest form of speech that infant lips can try and the sublimest strains that reach the Majesty on high. It is indeed the Christian’s vital breath and native air”.
Jesus knew the power of prayer. He knew that with prayer and submission to God’s will, everything was possible. He therefore took time to pray and at times He spent nights in prayer, Luke 6:12. Other times He woke up very early in the mornings so as to have undisturbed communion with His Father, Mark 1:35. He made it clear by word and action that prayer was very important to Him, as it must be for all Christian leaders in whatever role they have, secular society or spiritual, Mark 6:30-31.
Six characteristics of exemplary leaders in church, in government and in society
After considering “Jesus’ model of leadership” I would now like to look into the characteristics that exemplary Christian leaders are expected to show in their contemporary society. “To become an exemplary leader, a person must be tested by God in every area of his life for his promotion, be tempted by the devil for his demotion, and be tried by people to reveal the quality of his character. He has to go through various adverse circumstances to prove him in his attitudes, actions and reactions.”
In our contemporary society I believe the characteristics God requires in every Christian leader, whatever his/her position, are:
That he/she “is led by the Holy Spirit, for leaders who have a heart that seeks after God are attentive to His voice and sensitive to His leadings”.
That he/she “manifests Christ in whatever he thinks, says, and does, to glorify the Lord”. The leaders should also have the character of being “ardent students of the scripture that enriches their lives with divine principles and guides them on the path of fulfilment and satisfaction in their own walk with God”.
That he/she stimulate and motivate others by his example of being “alive, vibrant and most challenging to all who observe his walk and performance. He stirs up in others the same desire that is burning in his own heart. His vision is contagious, his zeal and steadfastness of faith ignite divine fire and power in his followers”.
That he/she aspire to “represent God, desire to serve Him, glory in His name, live to extol Him, worship and adore Him”. This characteristic will eventually attract people to Christ because of what they will be seeing in his/her life.
That he/she is to lead by serving others the way our Lord Jesus Christ did as has been discussed in the earlier section of this paper. “A true leader is a servant at heart who by his total dedication captures the hearts of his followers who will go with him delightedly.”
Finally, an exemplary Christian leader should lead lovingly, for a “leader who leads lovingly is followed willingly, for love stimulates the will, invigorates the desire and solicits the full cooperation of his people.”
In conclusion, I must say that the Lord Jesus was an exemplary leader whose footsteps are well worth following. He was a leader with a difference, who changed things for the better wherever He went. He was never too busy for the people He was leading. He lived with them and ate with them, sharing in what they were going through. He always worked at improving their status, giving Himself as a sacrifice for them. Truly there has never been a leader like Him.
I am sure that all Christians in leadership roles should follow His example by leading in the same way that He did. Leaders should stop looking at their self-interests and look at the interests of the people they are responsible for leading by serving. As leaders, they should come up with strategies that will bring personal development, thus improving the status of the people they are leading. It is true that the church leadership locally and denominationally has failed in many areas, but it is not too late to make a resolution to change ways and determine to hold on to Jesus’ philosophy of leadership. I believe this is also true for civic figures, those who represent communities, those voted into parliament, those entrusted to serve all the varied people of our countries, South Sudan and Sudan. And tribal, clan or family leaders must evaluate their own traditions against the One Who was Creator God in the flesh. The crucified and risen Lord Jesus will, one day soon, be the Judge of the living and the dead. 2 Timothy 4:1; 1 Peter 4:5.
On a personal capacity, I would like to say that the contemporary Christian leaders in our churches today should strive to have the following personal characteristics in order to be effective examples to the Body of Jesus Christ. They should be filled with the Holy Spirit, manifest the character of Christ in all their undertakings, be students of the scriptures, motivate other believers, represent God in the right way, serve his/her followers wholeheartedly, and show love even where it seems as if it is ‘impossible’ to love. We need a deep spiritual awakening in our nations today more than ever before. Particularly in South Sudan and Sudan we must, as churches, combine prophetic preaching with prophetic praying. Men and women who lived on their knees, like the Bible’s Daniel, Nehemiah, Esther, Elijah and Elisha, were those God used as instruments to bring their nations back to God. Are we ready for God to raise up whoever He wants today? Perhaps our governments will follow our churches when our churches genuinely follow our Lord Jesus?
Using this chapter and Scriptures quoted
From reading the wisdom of Proverbs cited, share the value of “integrity” (sometimes translated “blameless”): Proverbs 2:7; 2:21; 11:3; 19:1; 28:26. Can you find any more occurrences of these words in Proverbs to add to the discussion?
Thinking of Jesus’ servant leadership, answer David’s two questions: “Do you think that your style of leadership, in the sphere of national government, state and regional councils, tribal traditions or church ministry, is seen by others as being ‘majority servanthood’? What changes must you plan to make it so?
In Mark 1:21-28 people recognised the authority of Jesus. Share other examples of this from the four Gospels. Are there any links between His authority and His integrity, His prayer life, etc.? Mark 1:35; 6:30-31; Luke 5:16; 6:12. How do they encourage us to live?
“Every good leader keeps a loose grip on their position”. Why? Mark 3:13-19; Matthew 10:1-42 show our Lord Jesus bringing others into His ministry. How can we imitate this?
1 Timothy 1:2; 2 Timothy 1:2; 1 Corinthians 4:17 and Philippians 2:22 show Paul bringing Timothy into ‘his’ ministry. What does this teach us? How?
How can modern leaders “show Christ … in whatever they do”? Share practical ideas.
Using the story of Elijah, 1 Kings 16:29-19:18, how did God use him in leading the nation back to Himself? Are there parallels for today?
 David Ministries Foundation, The Complete Christian Dictionary For Home, School and Office (Illinois: Oasis International Ltd.) 2002, p.387.  Ajith Fernando, Leadership Lifestyle (Mumbai: GLS Publishing, 1985), p.15.  Sirmon D.G., Hitt M.A. & Ireland, R.D. Managing Firm Resources in Dynamic Environments to Create Value: looking inside the blackbox Academy of Management Review, 32 (1), p.273 – 292, 2007.  Kusumasari B., Alam Q. & Siddiqui K. Resource Capability for Local Government in Managing Disaster Disaster Prevention and Management, 19 (4), p.438 –451, 2010.  Dethier J. J., & de Janvry A. The World Bank and Governance : The Bank’s Efforts to Help Developing Countries Build State Capacity Washington: The World Bank, 2012.  Andjun J. R. B. Managing Financial Transactions Efficiently: a Transaction Cost Model of Public Financial Management. Financial Management Theory in The Public Sector, p.15, 43 – 56, 2010. C. Gene Wilkes, Jesus On Leadership (Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers) 1998 p.9.  J. Oswald Sanders, Spiritual Leadership (Chicago: Moody Press) 1967 p.23.  Philip Greenslade, Leadership Greatness and Servanthood (Minnesota: Bethany House Publishers) 1984, p.104.  Ibid. p.105.  Ibid.  C Gene Wilkes, p.9.  Philip Greenslade, Ibid. p.106.  Ibid. p.107.  Summarised from Philip Greenslade, Leadership Greatness and Servanthood (Minnesota: Bethany House) 1984, p.104ff.  Leighton Ford, Transforming Leadership: Jesus Way of Creating Vision, Shaping Values & Empowering Change. (Illinois: InterVarsity Press) 1991, p.134.  C Gene Wilkes, Ibid. p.9.  Philip Greenslade, Leadership: A Biblical Pattern for Today (Southampton: Input Typesetting Limited) 1984, p.111-112.  Leighton Ford, Ibid. p.102.  Greenslade, Ibid. p.116.  Greenslade Ibid.  Ibid.  Ibid.  Leighton Ford, Ibid. p.227.  James M Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner eds., Christian Reflections on The Leadership Challenge (San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass) 2004, p.87.  Kouses & Posner, Ibid. p.87.  C. Genes Wilkes, Ibid. p.12.  Sanders, Ibid. p.121.  Dr. Costa S. Deir, The Exemplary Leader (New York: International Leadership Seminars) 1996, p.3.  Ibid. p.12.  Ibid. p.18.  Ibid. p.24.  Ibid. p.33.  Dr Costa S. Deir Ibid. p.45.  Ibid. p.58.  Ibid. p.70.