Leadership, Integrity and Nation building.
– by David Fugoyo-Baime
‘Integrity’ is what the world needs today. Most of the man-made calamities in the world are the result of lack of integrity. Operationally, integrity can be defined as the willingness and ability to act up to the required standard. Doing everything which is required to healthily promote human life without bias is what integrity is all about. Integrity is acting as if people were watching you. It is to be consistent in upholding certain principles and values that make a person be exemplary and trustworthy. The word ‘secular’ has been misunderstood by many. During the time of peace negotiation between the Government of Sudan in Khartoum and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) before the year 2005, one of the main factors that hindered the process of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was the word “secular”. The SPLM/A wanted a secular Sudan whereas the Government wanted a Sharia-led government. It was clear that the Government viewed secular to mean “evil or without God”. In essence, secular should be understood as where everybody and every religion and every culture is allowed to operate equally.
‘Leadership’ is another important variable in this chapter. Leadership is a practised phenomenon but is not easy to define. Leadership should be thought of as the ability to influence people to see, believe and act in a certain way. Leaders, therefore, are those who have the charisma to make others see vision and act toward the vision. Leadership is about the people and their well-being. It is first and foremost a call to serve and meet the needs of the people. Leadership can be defined as “the influence of others in a productive, vision-driven direction and is done through the example, conviction, and character of the leader” and “the use of power to serve the people.” D’Souza sees that leadership “involves working with and through people to achieve results which are not necessarily institutional or organisational goals.” From these definitions, it is clear that influence and service are vital in leadership. Leaders of integrity must be the people who are able to positively influence the people (through their positive behaviours and speeches) and who are willing to serve the people rather than to serve their own interests. This chapter stresses the point that integrity must be practised by everyone everywhere. In leadership, integrity is about treating others the way you would want them treat you or the way they should be treated. Using our leadership position to mistreat others is a complete lack of integrity.
Exploration of integrity
Integrity is the key word in this article. Pursuing integrity in leadership is painful most of the time. It is painful because the world around us encourages shortcuts rather than integrity. Proverbs 10:9 and 11:3 clearly state that those who follow integrity will always prosper but those who hate integrity fail. Though pursuing integrity is painful, the Apostle Peter encourages us to live a life of integrity in this wicked world. He says, “Live such good lives among the pagans that, though they accuse you of doing wrong, they may see your good deeds and glorify God on the day he visits us”, 1 Peter 2:12.
Integrity is the most important attribute in leadership, both in secular and in Christian circles. Recently, a survey by Robert Half Management Resources was conducted to find out the most important attribute in leadership. The survey was conducted in a secular environment where over 1,000 employees and 2,200 leaders (Chief Financial Officers—CFOs) were asked the following question: “Which of these are the most important attributes in a corporate leader?” Each respondent was allowed to choose up to three responses to the question. The list of the attributes to choose from included transparency, accessibility, collaborative mind-set, fairness, integrity, decisiveness, strategic mindset and competitiveness. The respondents rated the attributes as follows:
Integrity 75% 46%
Fairness 58% 45%
Decisiveness 37% 22%
Strategic mindset 32% 32%
Transparency 25% 33%
Accessibility 23% 33%
Collaborative mindset 20% 39%
Competitiveness 10% 30%
Terri Williams analysed the importance of integrity and concluded that organisations must have leaders of integrity. Williams observed that employees considered integrity as vital, especially in the leadership of the leaders. The executive director of the firm that ran the survey said, “People want to work for those who are ethical. They know that if their leader acts with integrity, that leader will treat them right and do what’s best for the business. Companies with strong, ethical management teams enhance their ability to attract investors, customers and talented professionals” The importance of integrity, therefore, is not only realised in a religious or Christian circle, but it is an attribute needed in every leadership.
Integrity is such a big idea that encapsulates the entire life of a leader. There are areas where leaders must pay keen attention to in order to deliver leadership with integrity. In relation to leadership, integrity can be viewed as an acronym. Each letter in integrity stands for a certain word and practice that define integrity more broadly as follows:
The letter “I” in integrity stands for inspiration or insight. Inspiration simply means being enabled by God or by surrounding happenings to do what one ought to do. Having external force that encourages leaders to do what they are supposed to do is vital in leadership. Leaders who lack source of motivation are never motivated to execute their duties as they should. Leaders should rely on God for counsel and also seek advice from godly and experienced people.
The letter “N” stands for nationalism. Nationalism or patriotism is vital in leadership. If a leader lacks the sense of patriotism, this leader will definitely not lead with integrity. Nationalism creates the zeal to do things the right way and for the sake of the people and nation. Nationalistic leaders are unselfish—they do not lead for their own benefits, but for the benefit of the people they lead. The people, or the nation, might have acted against the leaders in the past. Leaders of integrity should not act based on the bad experiences of the past. They should embrace and work for the betterment of the nation.
The letter “T” stands for transparency. People can do nasty things when they are alone, but try to do their best when others are watching them. Doing what one needs to do without hiding it from those that are supposed to be part of it or know of it is integrity in leadership. Leaders of integrity know that what they do is the right thing, and for this reason they do let others see and know what they are doing. Transparency is, therefore, the letting of others know and see what one does, and this in turn forces the leader to do what is right—this is now integrity.
The letter “E” stands for excellence. Excellence is the process of aspiring for the best practice. Every work done without the spirit of excellence is doomed to failure. Integrity must be accompanied by excellence, and excellence must be in the heart of every leadership. In the Bible, Daniel had an excellent spirit, and this made him prosperous in everything he did, Daniel 2:19-23; 2:47; 4:9; 5:12-17. In his leadership, Daniel was unique and prosperous, not only because he was wise, but because the Spirit of God—the Spirit Who endowed him with excellence—was with him all the time. For God to be with Daniel, Daniel had to be committed to doing the right thing first. Only those leaders with the willingness to do the right and excellent things can excel in their leadership.
The letter “G” stands for gratitude. A complaining leader is almost a failed leader. Those who complain rather than doing what they are supposed to do can hardly be grateful to God. Gratitude here is the act of being grateful, satisfied and happy with the opportunity to serve. To be grateful does not mean everything around you is moving as you would want it to. It is rather the decision to be grateful for the opportunity to serve the people. While serving the people there are many problems that keep popping up every now and then. Despite all this, leaders should always have the sense of gratitude for the task of serving the people entrusted to them.
The letter “R” stands for relevance. Leaders do not live on an island. They live among the people and they need to do and execute duties that make sense and bring solutions to the people’s status quo. The continent of Africa, as an example, grapples with myriads of socio-political problems ranging from poverty, to war, to famine, etc. Leaders should work and solicit for change as a way of bringing remedies to these problems. Bringing remedies requires the understanding of the problems people face and working with the people to bring about solutions to the problems. Leaders of integrity must be relevant to the situation and the people they live among.
This letter “I” stands for initiative. Initiative is the game of brave and visionary leaders. Initiative involves planning and visualising the future. Integrity in leadership does not think and concentrate on today only, but tomorrow too. The tomorrow planned for is a successful tomorrow. Planning is part of integrity because integrity does not come as a surprise, integrity must be planned for. Planning needs the action to execute the plan. This is the initiative needed in leading with integrity.
This letter “T” stands for teachability. Leaders of integrity are good listeners and are receptive of criticism and corrections. Since everybody should be teachable, leaders are in as much need for learning, perhaps more, than anyone else. They should be open to learn and be taught by the people around them. True leaders know that they do not know everything and that they also need to be taught by those who know more they do in one way or another. Leaders of integrity will benchmark with other leaders to learn and improve their leadership. They are the type of leaders who study other successful leaders and learn from them. Because of this, they improve in their leadership day by day.
Yearning for transformation
The last letter “Y” in integrity stands for transformation! The strong desire to bring about transformation in a society is the ultimate goal of leadership, leadership with integrity. Leaders who lead with integrity are agents of transformation wherever they lead. Transformation, in this context, is the process of bettering and improving the life of the people in every way. If transformation is missing in any leadership, then the leadership is mere self-centred activities of the individuals claiming to lead the people. This should be a clue to help the people choose leaders. Leaders who concentrate on bringing about positive change to the community should be elected or chosen to lead the people. Jesus’ leadership was all about transformation, changing people from sons of darkness, where people lived under the authority of Satan, to the sons of light, where people would live under the authority of God, doing what was good for them and for their neighbours. Positive life-changing transformation cannot take place in the absence of justice and peace. Seeing the hand of God in their lives, Mary and Zechariah realised the justice and peace in God’s deeds as He transforms His people by bringing about justice and peace. Mary sang these words, “He has performed mighty deeds with His arm; He has scattered those who are proud in their inmost thoughts. He has brought down rulers from their thrones but has lifted up the humble. He has filled the hungry with good things but has sent the rich away empty”, Luke 1:51-53. Through his song, Zechariah said, “Praise be to the Lord, the God of Israel, because He has come to His people and redeemed them. He has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of His servant David (as He said through His holy prophets of long ago), salvation from our enemies and from the hand of all who hate us—to show mercy to our ancestors and to remember His holy covenant, the oath He swore to our father Abraham: to rescue us from the hand of our enemies, and to enable us to serve Him without fear in holiness and righteousness before Him all our days…to shine on those living in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the path of peace”, Luke 1:68-79. The two songs by Mary and Zechariah came as a direct result of their personal experiences with God. Both declared the fact that God was a God of justice and peace. Through justice and peace, God brought transformation to His people—Jesus was to be born to bring transformation; John the Baptist was to be born to bring justice and peace as he prepared the way for the Saviour.
Ø Paul said no one could point a finger at him
Paul was one of the Apostles who suffered both from the people and the authorities who resisted the Gospel of Jesus (for example, 2 Corinthians 11:23-29). He severally wrote that he suffered from the people and endured hardship for the sake of the Gospel of Jesus—the Gospel that taught him how to maintain integrity. In his teaching on “Paul’s Integrity”, Pastor John Miller used 2 Corinthians 1:12–2:11 to explain Paul’s suffering and endurance in ministry. Miller reiterates the truth that all those serving God will be opposed, just as Paul was opposed. However, he urges the leaders or servants to copy these three qualities that Paul had during his service:
We should have a clear conscience according to 1:12-22. Paul and his team’s clear conscience was evident in his conduct, character and consistency in ministry. “Our conscience testifies that we have conducted ourselves in the world, and especially in our relations with you, with integrity and godly sincerity. We have done so, relying not on worldly wisdom, but on God’s grace”, verse 12. He did not hold grudges against anyone, or take the grudges of others to his heart. Leaders of integrity should mind about their consciences when challenged or opposed by others. Consistency in doing the right thing, with conduct and character reflecting what the leaders claim to be, is an essential and integral part in the leadership of those leading with integrity.
We should have a loving concern according to 1:23-2:4. Paul was concerned about both those he served amongst and those he served with. “I wrote to you out of great distress and anguish of heart and with many tears, not to grieve you but to let you know the depth of my love for you”, verse 4. Many leaders do care about their positions and personal life. But leaders of integrity would always care about the people they serve because people matter more than anything else. The people were created in the image of God not anything (anyone?) else! Concern is about knowing what people are going through, how people are doing, how the people can be helped and empowered, etc.
We should have a forgiving heart according to 2:5-11. Working with or leading people will always require forgiveness, probably both ways. Leaders will always meet people who will offend and oppose them. Forgiveness, therefore, is highly needed in order for leaders to lead healthily. “Anyone you forgive, I also forgive – if there was anything to forgive – I have forgiven in the sight of Christ for your sake, in order that Satan might not outwit us. For we are not unaware of his schemes”, verses10-11. Lack of forgiveness is nothing but a blockage to an exemplary leadership. Leaders who are concerned about and practise integrity must see to it that they forgive always.
Ø Jesus did not commit sin or crime
Jesus is the perfect example of integrity in leadership. The Apostle Peter says that Jesus committed no sin,
1 Peter 2:22, and that makes Him a perfect leader. Jesus Himself stood before the people and asked, “Can any of you prove Me guilty of sin? If I am telling the truth, why don’t you believe Me?” John 8:46. We can learn the following integrity lessons from this verse:
People hated Jesus and accused Him falsely: people will always hate those who uphold integrity in leading others. This world does not favour those who want to live the ideal Christian life, nor does it commend leaders who front integrity in their leadership. But the great lesson is that Jesus did not give up; He continued to uphold integrity in His leadership despite the challenges. If you uphold integrity, people, including your close friends and family members, will hate you and accuse you falsely because they do not like your lifestyle. But lead on, with your integrity intact!
People did not believe Jesus: because Jesus lived differently, the people around Him made up their minds not to believe Him. This may well always happen to leaders who value and practise integrity. The people around you may know that what you do and believe is true, but they can choose not to believe you because you do not belong to their group—the group of those who hate or do not practise integrity.
Jesus was not what they claimed He was: Jesus knew He upheld integrity, but the people around Him accused Him of being guilty of sin. They consider Him a sinful man who misled the people. Many a time they said He had demons – for example in Luke 11:15-20, and, He broke the laws of Moses – for example in John 9:16. But the truth is they hated Him because His teaching was so powerful and penetrating. People will always say what they want to say about leaders of integrity. But the leaders need to stand up and defend their integrity through both works and words.
Jesus always said the truth: despite the challenges, accusations and criticism by the people around Him, Jesus continued to say the truth. Even during the time of His crucifixion, Jesus said the truth, John 18:19-23; 18:37-38. This means that leaders of integrity do not change colours; they do not say one thing today and another tomorrow. They are consistent in telling the truth. Leaders of integrity are consistent because truth does not change.
What leaders should learn from Jesus is that He did not feel bad or abandon His integrity because the people around Him hated Him because of it. Many leaders who want to pursue integrity in their leadership have given up because of peer pressure, family pressure or other reasons.
Ø Old Testament Samuel was a leader in Israel for a long time. As a judge, he had the political authority over the people; as a prophet and a priest, he had the spiritual authority over the people. In today’s understanding, one would say that Samuel was all in all as far as leadership is concerned. However, Samuel did his best to maintain his integrity. He did not use his authority and influence to take advantage of his people. Being confident of his integrity in leadership, he shouted, “Here I stand. Testify against me in the presence of the Lord and his anointed. Whose ox have I taken? Whose donkey have I taken? Whom have I cheated? Whom have I oppressed? From whose hand have I accepted a bribe to make me shut my eyes? If I have done any of these things, I will make it right”, 1 Samuel 12:3. Because the people were sure that Samuel had not done any of the evil against them, they replied, “‘You have not cheated or oppressed us,’ they replied. ‘You have not taken anything from anyone’s hand’”, verse 4.
This story teaches us about integrity in leadership. The following can be learned from it:
1. Only leaders who are sincere in their leadership can ask their people to evaluate them. If you know you have been a cheater, a land grabber, a corrupt leader, you cannot stand before your subordinates, asking them to evaluate you. Every leader knows where they belong as far as integrity is concerned, even before others evaluate them. Samuel could only ask people to sincerely evaluate him because he knew he had done no evil to his people.
2. Leaders of integrity know that they will not remain in a leadership position for ever. Every leadership opportunity has got a beginning and an end. Recognising the fact that other leaders will always come after us to lead the people is a healthy practice. It prepares leaders to do their best, to practise integrity and to aim at the goals for which they lead the people. Samuel gave this speech when he was retiring, and he was ready to allow another leader come and take over leadership.
3. Leading with integrity recognises God. Leaders who push God away from their leadership can hardly lead with integrity. Samuel recognised God in his leadership. He replied to the people saying, “The Lord is witness against you, and also his anointed is witness this day, that you have not found anything in my hand”, 1 Samuel 12:5. What Samuel says here is that his treatment to the people was done before God and that God saw everything he did while leading the people. We must remember He sees all of us all the time today too.
4. Those who lead with integrity do not intimidate the people to say or do what they want them to. The Bible is clear that Samuel asked the people to sincerely tell him if he had caused any harm against them. It was a sincere request, not done through intimidation.
Areas that need integrity in both secular and Christian leadership
Leading in an environment which is not necessarily Christian can be challenging. Certain Christian values are not upheld by many non-Christians. Most of the leadership challenges in the secular and Christian worlds are the same, but Christian leadership has additional challenges. The following are among the top challenges for leaders in the secular and Christian worlds:
Dealing with money: Money is not evil, but it is tempting. Being a leader in a secular organisation where cash flows on regular basis has been a great challenge testing the integrity of many leaders in the organisations. For a time no one doubts what leaders do and/or how they handle the money. Because of the leadership position, it is easy to request or authorise the release of money at any time. Integrity in leadership is needed for the leader to follow the right and authorised procedures of dealing with money.
Dealing with the opposite sex: Generally, illicit sexual relationships and activities are not allowed in institutions, but that does not mean it does not happen. Many subordinates or followers get interested in leaders and many leaders get interested in their subordinates. Dealing with the opposite sex has caused many leaders to lose their integrity and engage in illicit sexual relationships. Leadership with integrity requires precautions and boundaries are in place to minimise the chances of and opportunities for such relationships.
Dealing with different tribes: in Africa, tribalism or negative ethnicity is a big phenomenon. Many leaders prefer to employ or favour their relatives. Leaders of integrity are those who know they are leading people from different tribes and that all the people from all the tribes deserve the opportunities. The best qualified people should have what they deserve whatever their ethnic background.
Dealing with enemies: Whoever aspires to become a leader will have enemies. Enemies are not necessarily made or created; enemies are born naturally. Whether you lead with integrity or not, you will always have enemies as a leader. Leaders of integrity do not work against their enemies, they do not wish harm to their enemies; leaders work for the good of all people including their enemies. Most of the time, enemies may suck the positive energy from the leaders, but leaders who lead with integrity should not allow the negative thoughts and deeds by their enemies to suck the goodness from them.
Because of the spiritual aspects which are not considered in the secular world, leadership in the Christian world tends to be more difficult. This is more than just a behaviour and action challenge—since love, fear of God and positive intention in public and in private are motivationally very important.
In Christianity, the heart of integrity is love. Christian leaders need to love both their supporters and their opponents. John encourages followers of Christ to love one another, 1 John 3:11. Paul says, “If I speak in the tongues of men or of angels, but do not have love, I am only a resounding gong or a clanging cymbal. If I have the gift of prophecy and can fathom all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have a faith that can move mountains, but do not have love, I am nothing.If I give all I possess to the poor and give over my body to hardship that I may boast, but do not have love, I gain nothing”, 1 Corinthians 13:1-3. Both John and Paul stress the fact that love should go beyond words and be translated into actions. Leaders who hate—even if they do not put the hatred into action—are not of integrity. In fact, they do not deserve to be leaders.
Integrity is also seen in the way leaders interpret the word of God. Those who manipulate the Scripture to suit their own interests cannot be considered leaders of integrity. Integrity is the faithful and sincere interpretation of the word of God whether or not the Bible supports us. Integrity is when a leader repents rather than defends himself, or herself, when challenged by the Scripture. The wealth and health gospel, where leaders speak of God’s material blessings and where followers are requested or coerced to pay money to the leaders, is a clear example of lack of integrity. Giving is biblical and is a sign of commitment in Christianity. However, many leaders have used this opportunity to compel their followers to give, not to God, but to the leaders. As a result, these leaders are getting richer everyday while their subjects get poorer everyday. This is an example of how even the word of God can be misused by the leaders who lack integrity.
In regard to dealing with the opposite sex, integrity comes not only in how appropriate one is related to the opposite sex as discussed earlier, but also in how one feels or what one thinks about the opposite sex. Jesus said, “But I tell you that anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart”, Matthew 5:28. So, it is not only about action but feeling and thoughts. Integrity in leadership is the mind-struggle not to harbour evil thoughts. Evil thoughts lead to inappropriate actions. What we have realised to be the difference between the secular and spiritual leadership is that secular leadership ends at the ethics (what is seen) level, whereas Christian leadership goes beyond ethics to the heart (what is not seen). Integrity in Christian leadership is more complex because of this fact.
Fruit of integrity
Integrity is always reciprocated by trust. When people see a leader of integrity, they tend to trust the leader. When the people trust the leader, then the leader has more chances to influence the people. Integrity is very foundational to leadership. So, trust is one of the fruit of integrity. Integrity yields peace and tranquillity in every society. Most of the post-election violence and rebellion of some individuals in several African countries are caused by lack of integrity. When people realise that the leaders act maliciously and in a corrupt way, people become upset and this causes many to rebel and cause chaos which takes away the peace and tranquillity of respectful society.
Integrity brings about harmony among communities. Harmony is so important for every society to advance. Coexistence is broken in the absence of integrity. It is only leaders of integrity who love and genuinely work for the unity of their people. They do their best to shun negative ethnicity by building diverse unity with people from different tribes. To bring about unity, leaders need to work hand in hand with the church. The church, through the help of God, is able to unite the people of South Sudan. Though the word unity does not appear in the Bible, the idea of unity is found in the Bible. Ngewa sees that unity is strength in many aspects of life in Africa. Kosse has also seen unity in the African villages, but he has also said that this kind of unity is only among the people of the same ethnic group and can be used against anyone who comes from a different ethnic group. He believes in the unity that comes from God because it is “fostered and maintained by the work of the Holy Spirit, the agent of new birth, the source of life in the believer, the giver of the gifts and fruit of the Spirit.”
Please note: Unity within one ethnic group or tribe or culture is not the same as Jesus prayed in John 17:20-21: “that all of them may be one, Father, just as You are in Me and I am in You”. That “oneness” must be a compound unity, a unity with those without, giving unity and at the same time respecting diversity. It is like each of three Persons in God the Holy Trinity fully embracing and being embraced by one another. As we worship One God, so we must live and be one united diverse people.
Concluding remarks and suggested way forward
In this chapter we have defined and discussed the terms integrity, leadership, Christian and secular. We discussed that integrity should be in every leadership.
The difference between secular leadership and Christian leadership is Christ.
Christ is the foundation of Christian leadership whereas other principles and religions inform the foundation of secular leadership. As a way forward, we should always bear in mind that integrity is integral in every activity in life. Many people may think that integrity is only for leaders. But each of us, including you dear reader, is a leader in one way or another. Even if you lead a very small group or your family members, you are also a leader and you are supposed to uphold and exercise integrity. We should teach our children, our neighbours, our relatives and friends to uphold unity and respect all others. We should teach them not to look for opportunities only for their tribesmen but for everyone who is qualified or who deserves the opportunity.
South Sudan is complex at the moment. Jok says, “South Sudanese citizens remain confronted by myriad forms of violence, ranging from localised ethnic conflicts to urban crime and violence perpetrated by security forces.” This condition can only be changed by leaders of integrity. Integrity in leadership means striving to curb violence by all positive means so all people may live in trust, peace, tranquillity and harmony.
Using this chapter and Scriptures quoted
Discuss the offered acronym for INTEGRITY: (Inspiration/nationalism/transparency/excellence/gratitude/relevance/initiative/teachability/yearning for change). Produce your own short (3 or 4 line?) definition of the word.
Why do you think “integrity what the world needs (most) today”? Proverbs 10:9; 11:3.
Why is “pursuing integrity in leadership painful most of the time”? 1 Peter 2:11-21; 5:1-11. Be as practical as you can.
“Now this is our boast: our conscience testifies that we have conducted ourselves in the world, and especially in our relations with you, with integrity (holiness) and godly sincerity. We have done so, relying not on worldly wisdom but on God’s grace”. Paul in 2 Corinthians 1:12. Explain any links between “integrity” and the NIV margin alternative, “holiness”. How does one help describe the other?
“People will always hate those who uphold integrity in leading others”. Why is our Lord Jesus such a good example in this? John 8:45-47. 18:19-24.
Would you be able to give a testimony about your life and service, like Samuel did in 1 Samuel 12:1-5? Why? Why not? Discuss ways of putting wrongs right. Luke 19:7-10; Exodus 22:1; Leviticus 6:4-5; Numbers 5:7.
How does God’s all-seeing eye help us live with integrity? Hebrews 4:13.
 Chris Brady and Orrin Woodward Launching A Leadership Revolution: Mastering the Five Levels of Influence (Business Plus:New York) 2005, p. 7.  Walter C. Wright Relational Leadership: A Biblical Model for Leadership Service (Paternoster: Cumbria) 2000, p. 180.  Anthony D’Souza Leadership: Trilogy on Leadership and Effective Management (Paulines Publications: Nairobi, Kenya) 2008, p.23.  What is the Most Important Leadership Attribute? Robert Half Management Resources (September 2016), http://rhmr.mediaroom.com/most-important-leadership-attribute (accessed August 12, 2017).  Terri Williams Why Integrity Remains One of the Top Leadership Attributes The Economist, https://execed.economist.com/blog/industry-trends/why-integrity-remains-one-top-leadership-attributes (accessed August 12, 2017).  John Miller Paul’s Integrity: 2 Corinthians 1:12-2:11 http://www.revival.tv/pdf/sermons/w1102.pdf, (accessed June 4, 2017).  Samuel Ngewa What Is the Church?,Africa Bible Commentary (Word Alive:Nairobi, Kenya) 2006, p.1431.  Kuzuli Kosse Unity of Believers Africa Bible Commentary (Word Alive:Nairobi, Kenya) 2006, p.1288.  Jok Madut Jok Mapping the Sources of Conflict and Insecurity in South Sudan The Sudd Institute: Report No 1 (January 2013): 2-21. Accessed 3 October 2013. Online: http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article45193.