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A one-line dictionary of English words and their usage in this book

Christian theology in a Sudanese context.

accounted for explained, to one in authority adoption to bring a person into a specific relationship, to take over for one’s own child admonition advice against doing something; warning caution advocate one who speaks in favour of another, one who defends the cause of another affirmation a statement of truth positively put forward albeit even though allegiance loyalty to a person or a group alleged stated before, or even without, proof allusion a brief, indirect reference – not a direct quotation almighty having all power Almighty another name for God anarchy lawlessness, disorder; absence of government when everyone pleases

themselves ancestral relating to family from the past

analogy comparison made to show likeness or similarity apologetics intelligent defence of the Christian faith (Greek apologia – to defend) NOT the similar English word, ‘apology’ meaning ‘to express regret for a failure or fault’!

arrogancy (old English) pride and self-importance aseeda (Arabic) a staple or main food, type of cooked cereal atmosphere layer of air and gas surrounding the earth atonement satisfaction given for an injury or wrong; reconciliation made attested confirmed as true attribute a quality belonging to a person, a typical character mark

attributing seen as belonging to begotten fathered, caused, born of (the act of God in the birth of Jesus) believe a trusting commitment to Jesus, being certain that He is God the Son and Saviour

benefit something that improves or brings advantage bondage slavery to catholic universal, relating to all people;

Catholic the entire body of Christians Roman Catholic the specific Church-group over which the Pope presides from the


chai (Arabic) tea – sometimes spelt as shaay Christian a person who believes in, and follows, Jesus clinicalness plainness, simplicity, directness, usually unattractive coinherance joined together in a way not to be broken communion sharing thoughts and emotions in a common bond Communion the Lord’s Supper service of bread and wine condemned cell basic prison room in which a person waits for execution

confession a stated admission of mistakes, sins, errors and faults Confession of Faith a formal public statement of firm and specific religious beliefs confirmation proving to be true confluence merging, mixing and flowing together contentious tending to argue or quarrel contraction making smaller, shortening contrition deeply felt regret for wrong doing controversies disputes, debates – often in public, where there is strong disagreement

corporate from a joint or united group council assembly of appointed people meeting for discussion counsel advice or guidance on conduct, behaviour, choices Creed formal and concise statement of essential Christian (or other) beliefs and principles cultural transposition understanding behaviour or ideas in another time and social

setting damnation eternal punishment by God definitive serving to define, settle finally and conclusively deification exalting to the position of a god denomination group of churches with its own special way of believing and organising

derogatory insulting, offensive dignity worth and honour dimension aspect; effect to be considered discerning being able to recognise good from bad, even when it is not easy distortion twisting or pulling out of the right shape diversity variety, many different ones doctrine a belief or teaching from the Bible, in a specific area of theology

dogmatic forcefully claim to be the absolute authority on what is right dukkan (Arabic) local shop ecclesiastical relating to the organisation of the church or churches effectual calling capable and successful in producing the intended result elite the most powerful, rich, gifted or educated members of a group

elitism pride in being an elite, the belief that society should be governed by the elite

encroaching gradually taking over erring making mistakes, turning from the right course esoteric intended for a minority who know something others do not, difficult to

understand essential of vital importance; the fundamental nature or foundation of eternal without beginning or end; lasting forever eternity endless time; time with no limits etymological source and development of words through history evil morally wrong – sinful; naturally bad – harmful; always the opposite of God’s best

exaltation raising up and praising highly

facilitate to make easier and help the progress of faith strong belief in something; confident and practical trust in God Fall Adam’s sin of disobedience to God, and the resulting sinfulness of all humankind fatur (Arabic) breakfast, breaking the fast felicity happiness, joy and suitability figurative a word picture that shows what something else is like finite limited or restricted forgiveness stopping blame; freeing from a penalty; not holding a person’s sin against


foule (Arabic) beans – sometimes spelt as ful and fool generating station a place with special equipment for producing large amounts of


guilt deserving punishment for doing wrong– especially breaking God’s law haboob (Arabic) dust storm heresy a belief or teaching that is in error and is against usually accepted Christian truth holy set apart; pure; one quality of God Himself; person separated from sin and to God hovering remaining in one place while flying

humankind the human race, all people everywhere male and female

hydroelectric electricity made by the power of falling water idol often a physical object of wood or stone; any person or thing that takes the place of


imam (Arabic) leader of congregational prayers in local mosque immutable does not change, and is not changed by time or anything else impiety lack of respect for God imputed personal position legally transferred to someone else

incarnation showing or being in a bodily form – usually a human form

Incarnation the act of God the Son becoming a human being incomprehensible not able to be fully understood incredible beyond belief, amazing indissoluble not able to be dissolved or broken induce to persuade, to influence, to cause to happen inerrancy the belief that something is free from mistakes and inaccuracies infallibility the belief that something is totally reliable and will not fail in its purpose

infinite without limits or end; without boundaries iniquity a wicked act, sin initial the first, the beginning instantaneous done in a moment, with no delay in time irrevocable not able to be taken back, changed or undone jellabiya (Arabic) usually white, traditional clothing often worn by Sudanese men jihad (Arabic) holy war by Muslims against infidels (unbelievers) jinn (Arabic) spirits in Muslim tradition, which can take on many forms judgement (also judgment) the decision over a person being good or bad just fair in the treatment of everyone justification the act of being proven and seen to be right with God ka’ba the holy shrine of Islam in Mecca; a cube-like black building in the centre of its


kettle metal container with handle and spout for boiling water khawaja (Arabic) foreigner, often, a white or western person kisera (Arabic) a staple or main food, type of flat bread

literal limited to the exact first meaning of the word or text logic clear patterns of reasoning and thinking to conclusions manuscript original (often handwritten) documents, or later handwritten copies martyr person who suffers death rather than give up his or her religious beliefs

Mass the celebration of the Eucharist (bread and wine), mainly by RomanCatholics

mercy giving someone more than, or something different from, what they deserve metaphors word-pictures; figures of speech merit worth or superior quality; spiritual credit Ministry the profession or duties of an ordained clergyman morality customs of behaviour which guide our lives over good and bad, right and wrong motivating powerful reason for action NIV New International Version (of the Bible)

ordinance an authoritative regulation to be practiced original the first, beginning and genuine one orthodox usually accepted standards of behaviour or right belief Orthodox the Eastern Churches in communion with the Greek Patriarch of


overlap to partly cover another subject, to lay beside and partly over something else

paraclete a mediator or advocate Paraclete God the Holy Spirit as strengthener and as one who works together with us partakers people who take part in perseverance continued steady belief and effort in spite of difficulty, keeping going

persistence holding on and keeping going against difficulty pluralism theory that all separate groups should have equal rights, truth and power poetic writing in verse, the rhythm or spirit of writing polytheism the belief in more than one god predestination the act of God determining every event from eternity past progressive developing towards a goal or achievement psychological way of thinking; affecting the mind reconcile to make friends after being opposed; to bring back together

Rector Episcopal clergyman in charge of a parish redemption the act or process of being recovered, bought back, at a price

regeneration moral, spiritual, or physical renewal, a breathing in of new life repentance so sorry for being or doing wrong a person turns away from it

repudiate reject the authority of; refuse to accept as valid resume to begin again revelation what God shows us about Himself, usually in creation or in the Bible

righteous holy, good, upright and pure

ritual usually followed set form of a religious service or ceremony Roman Catholic see ‘catholic’ (above)

sacrifice the offering (usually killing) of something before God, for the sake of

someone else

salvation the act of being kept from harm when in danger; God rescuing humans from sin saviour one who rescues another from danger; Saviour Jesus Christ, Who rescues people from sin sanctification made more holy, freed from sin, set apart for holy use satisfaction (in the atonement) full payment of a debt that is owed scripture a sacred, solemn or authoritative book

Scripture the Old and New Testaments of the Bible secular things of daily life having nothing particularly to do with religion or church

sin breaking God’s known will, an act or thought against what God wants

sinful nature the desire to sin, resulting from Adam’s sin, in every human being soteriology the doctrine of salvation sovereign person exercising the top authority; God is Sovereign

spontaneous without being planned or prepared earlier subjectively personally thinking and feeling; judging by my experience substitutionary serving in the place of another suk (Arabic) market – sometimes spelt sook and souk supererogation the performance of work, prayers, devotions, in excess of that required

superintended directed, kept a watchful eye on the event and its operation surah (Arabic) chapter in the Qur’an syncretism joining together many different beliefs and practices systematic marked by the use of order and planning

territorial relating to any piece of land, or district, or country transgression breaking the law, overstepping the limit set, sin transliterate to use the sounds and letters of a word from a different language tribal from a particular social grouping of people, with a common descent or culture trustworthiness visible honesty and reliability turbines machines in which the energy of a moving fluid (or air) is used to turn a hub and


ultimate highest and most important, last and deciding unique the only one, without equal, without like universal common to the whole of humankind unpardonable cannot be excused or forgiven worship to show deep love, devotion and respect towards; to give honour to God wrath God’s holy anger; His hatred and punishment of sin wrought (old English) worked out, done ziir (Arabic) large clay water pot

The following sources were used to develop

these definitions:

  • Collins English Dictionary (Glasgow: Harper Collins) 1995.

  • Dictionary of Theological Terms in Simplified English (Wheaton: Evangelism andMission Information Service) 2003.

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